Research

We conduct research on the efficacy of RJ and help disseminate findings to a wide range of academics and practitioners.

The USD Center for RJ belongs to the Restorative Justice Research Community, an interdisciplinary community committed to supporting and connecting restorative justice researchers and scholars.
TV interview taking place, between David Karp and host. Play Video
25-minute overview of restorative justice by David Karp, Director of the Center for Restorative Justice.
 

An accessible introduction to campus-based restorative justice by Center for Restorative Justice Director, David Karp. 

Order copies from Good Books.

 

Restorative justice is a global social movement with many traditions and approaches. 

Restorative conferencing is a facilitated process guided by a scripted series of questions that help identify and repair harm. It has its roots in the indigenous Maori justice process in New Zealand. Conferencing became popularized worldwide in the 1990s as a result of research by the prominent Australian law professor John Braithwaite. In 1998 in Baltimore, Maryland, Lauren Abramson founded the Community Conference Center, now called Restorative Response Baltimore, one of the most active restorative justice centers in the U.S.

Victim-offender dialogues are an unscripted variation of conferencing originating in 1978 with a small program in Elkhart, Indiana by Howard Zehr. Often called the grandfather of restorative justice, Zehr became a professor at Eastern Mennonite University and published many seminal books on RJ. In the 1980s, Mark Umbreit, a social work professor at the University of Minnesota, further developed VOD as an evidence-based practice and founded the Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking.

Circle practices draw on Native American and Canadian First Nations traditions. Circle facilitators invite participants to answer questions by passing a talking piece that provides each person equal opportunity to participate. Circles became popular with the 1996 publication of Rupert Ross' Returning to the Teachings: Exploring Aboriginal Justice and the 2003 Peacemaking Circles: From Crime to Community, by Kay Pranis, Barry Stuart, and Mark Wedge. Circles are used widely as a means to build community, respond to crime or misconduct, and to offer support for people returning to a community after incarceration or suspension.

Truth and Reconciliation Commissions are public inquiries into past harms, providing a community with the opportunity to explore the nature of the harm and for individuals to articulate the impact as well as express remorse. The first TRC took place in Uganda in 1974 and the most well-known is the South Africa TRC of the 1990s led by Bishop Desmond Tutu. He wrote about it in No Future Without Forgiveness.

Recent Publications from the Center

2022

Appel, Monique B. 2022. Uncomfortable but Necessary: White Faculty Identity Development and Race Conversations. Masters in Higher Education Leadership. University of San Diego.

Flores, Pedro. 2022. When 'First, Do No Harm' Fails: A Restorative Justice Approach to Workgroup Harm In Healthcare. PhD Dissertation in Leadership Studies. University of San Diego.

Karp, David R., Jonathan Scharrer, Marilyn Armour, and Haley Farrar. 2022. NACRJ Higher Education Restorative Justice Policy Statement and Implementation and Management Guidelines. National Association of Community and Restorative Justice.

Long, Ruby, Emily C. Cleveland Manchanda, Annette M. Dekker, Liliya Kraynov, Susan Willson, Pedro Flores, Elizabeth A. Samuels, and Karin Rhodes. 2022. "Community Engagement via Restorative Justice to Build Equity-oriented Crisis Standards of Care." Journal of the National Medical Association https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2022.02.010

Naidu, Jessica D. 2022. Exploring Restorative Justice as an Adaptable Resolution for Gender-Based Misconduct. Masters in Higher Education Leadership. University of San Diego.

Pidgeon, Sydney. 2022. Public Safety Presence and Response in Campus Housing: Using Restorative Justice Interventions to Mitigate Harm and Restore Trust in the Residential Community. Masters in Higher Education Leadership. University of San Diego.

2021

Cirioni, Frank A. 2021. Needing More to Restore: A Case Study on Utilizing a Restorative Justice Curriculum to Address Campus Sexual Misconduct Cases in U.S. Higher Education. California State University, Long Beach. ProQuest Dissertations.

Reed, Thomas. 2021. "A Critical Review of the Native American Tradition of Circle Practices." Pp. 132-152 in Indigenous Research of Land, Self, and Spirit, edited by Robin Throne. IGI Global.

Reed, Thomas. 2021. Oneida College Lacrosse Players’ Perspectives of the Sacred Game of Lacrosse. PhD Dissertation in Leadership Studies. University of San Diego.

2020

Orcutt, Madison, Patricia M. Petrowski, David R. Karp, and Jordan Draper. 2020. “Restorative Justice Approaches to the Informal Resolution of Student Sexual Misconduct.” Journal of College and University Law 45(2).

Bell, Alexandra, Lyle Ashton Harris, and David R. Karp. 2020. “On Navigating Forgiveness, Redemption, and Rejection.” Pp. 230-241 in Culture as Catalyst. Skidmore College.

Giacomini, Nancy Geist, David R. Karp, Derrick D. Dixon and Valerie Glassman. 2020. “Off Script: Incorporating Principles of Conflict Management, Restorative Justice, and Inclusive Excellence into Informal and Formal Adjudication Pathways.” Chapter 12 in Chapter 10 in Reframing Campus Conflict and Student Conduct Practice for Inclusive Excellence, 2nd edition, edited by Jennifer Meyer Schrage and Nancy Geist Giacomini. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishers. Herndon, VA: Stylus.

McMahon, Sheila M. and David R Karp. 2020. “Building Relational and Critical Thinking Skills: The Power of Peer-led RJ Circles Among First Year College Students.” Chapter 10 in Reframing Campus Conflict and Student Conduct Practice for Inclusive Excellence, 2nd edition, edited by Jennifer Meyer Schrage and Nancy Geist Giacomini. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishers. Herndon, VA: Stylus. 

Karp, David R. and Kaaren Williamsen. 2020. Five Things Student Affairs Administrators Should Know about Restorative Justice and Campus Sexual Harm. Washington, DC.: NASPA.

2019

Behel, Jay M.. 2019. “I Shall Be Released.” Restorative Justice Techniques Can Address Healthcare Burnout & Attrition."  Reflective MedEd.

Karp, David R. 2019. “Restorative Justice and Responsive Regulation in Higher Education: The Complex Web of Campus Sexual Assault Policy in the United States and a Restorative Alternative.” Pp. 143-164 in Restorative and Responsive Human Services, edited by Gale Burford, Valerie Braithwaite, and John Braithwaite. New York: Routledge.

Karp, David R. 2019. “A Restorative Justice Approach to Campus Sexual Misconduct.” Council on Contemporary Families Symposium: Defining Consent, edited by Stephanie Coontz, Paula England, and Virginia Rutter. www.contemporaryfamilies.org.

Lopez, Elise C., Mary P. Koss, David R. Karp, Jay K. Wilgus. 2019. “Restorative Justice for Campus Sexual Misconduct.” Chapter 11 in Adjudicating Campus Sexual Misconduct and Assault: Controversies and Challenges, edited by Claire M. Renzetti and Diane R. Follingstad. San Diego, CA: Cognella.

Wilgus, Jay, David R. Karp, and Kaaren M. Williamsen. 2019. Comment Submitted to Department of Education on Changes to Title IX. Campus PRISM Project Briefing Paper.

2018

Behel, Jay M., and Adrienne S. Lawson. 2018. "Healing the Healers." AAMC News.

Ehnow, Robert Michael. 2018. Formerly Incarcerated Adults in Higher Education: A Life-History Study of a Restorative Approach to Prisoner Reentry. PhD Dissertation in Leadership Studies. University of San Diego.

Karp, David R. and Megan Schachter. 2018. “Restorative Justice in Colleges and Universities: What Works When Addressing Student Misconduct.” Pp. 247-263 in The Routledge Handbook of Restorative Justice, edited by Theo Gavrielides. New York: Routledge.

McMahon, Sheila M., David R. Karp, and Hayley Mulhern. 2018. “Addressing Individual and Community Needs in the Aftermath of Campus Sexual Misconduct: Restorative Justice as a Way Forward in the Re-Entry Process.” Journal of Sexual Aggression. DOI: 10.1080/13552600.2018.1507488

Sharp, Susan. 2018. Restorative Justice and Catholic Social Tradition: A Natural Alignment. Restorative Justice Network of Catholic Campuses Briefing Paper.

2017

Acosta, David and David R. Karp. 2017. "Restorative Justice as the Rx for Mistreatment in Academic Medicine: Applications to Consider for Learners, Faculty and Staff.” Academic Medicine 93: 354-356. DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000002037

Karp, David R. 2017. Next Steps for a Restorative Justice Approach to Campus-Based Sexual and Gender-Based Harassment, Including Sexual Violence. Campus PRISM Project Briefing Paper.

2016

Karp, David R. and Olivia Frank. 2016. “Anxiously Awaiting the Future of Restorative Justice in the United States.” Victims & Offenders 11: 50-70.

Karp, David R. 2016. Distinguishing Restorative Justice from Mediation. Campus PRISM Project Briefing Paper.

Karp, David R., Julie Shackford-Bradley, Robin J. Wilson, and Kaaren M. Williamsen. 2016. Campus PRISM: A Report on Promoting Restorative Initiatives for Sexual Misconduct on College Campuses. Campus PRISM Project Report.

Karp, David R. and Olivia Frank. 2016. “Restorative justice and student development in higher education: Expanding ‘offender’ horizons beyond punishment and rehabilitation to community engagement and personal growth.” Pp. 141-164 in Offenders No More: An Interdisciplinary Restorative Justice Dialogue, edited by Theo Gavrielides. New York: Nova Science Publishers.