Academic Course Catalogs

Drop Shadow

Biology

Richard J. Gonzalez, PhD, CHAIR
Lisa A.M. Baird, PhD
Terry H. Bird, PhD
Hugh I. Ellis, PhD
Valerie S. Hohman, PhD
Curtis M. Loer, PhD
Mary Sue Lowery, PhD
Michael S. Mayer, PhD
Geoffrey Morse, PhD
Marjorie Patrick, PhD
Gregory K. Pregill, PhD
Marie A. Simovich, PhD
Adam Siepielski, PhD
Curt W. Spanis, PhD

The Biology Major

The Department of Biology offers a program that allows the student to obtain a thorough preparation for graduate or professional school, to acquire the laboratory training necessary for entry into advanced programs in biotechnology, or to supplement other major studies with a broad background in biology. A strong emphasis is placed on laboratory and field experience, not only to acquaint the student with the working methods of science, but also to foster active learning skills. All students are encouraged to complement their formal coursework with research on campus under faculty supervision (see Undergraduate Research) or off campus through our internship program. The following high school preparation is strongly recommended for students planning a major in biology at USD: elementary algebra; plane geometry; intermediate algebra; trigonometry; chemistry; physics; and biology. Three years of study in a modern foreign language is also recommended.

Students are urged to consult departmental advisors early in their college career in order to select a program of courses most suitable to their high school background and to their future goals. The high faculty-to-student ratio allows each student to receive individualized assistance in course selection and career planning. The flexible structure of the biology major allows each student to focus his or her studies in one or more areas of interest. To assist those students preparing for careers in the health sciences, the university offers a Pre-Health Advising office within the Dean’s office of the College of Arts & Sciences. By working together with the Pre-Health advisor and their academic advisor within the Biology Department, pre-health students can design a course of study that best prepares them for their chosen professional school.

Students are urged to consult departmental advisors early in their college career in order to select a program of courses most suitable to their high school background and to their future goals. The high faculty-to-student ratio allows each student to receive individualized assistance in course selection and career planning. The flexible structure of the biology major allows each student to focus his or her studies in one or more areas of interest. To assist those students preparing for careers in the health sciences, the university offers a Pre-Health Advising office within the Dean’s office of the College of Arts & Sciences. By working together with the Pre-Health advisor and their academic advisor within the Biology Department, pre-health students can design a course of study that best prepares them for their chosen professional school.

Preparation for the Major

BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L; CHEM 151, 151L, 152, 152L; CHEM 301, 301L; PHYS 136, 137 or equivalent; and introductory college calculus.

The Major

A minimum of 28 Upper-Division Units in biology is required. These must include:
BIOL 300
BIOL 305
BIOL 309
and one of the following options:
BIOL 490 – Senior Project
BIOL 491 – Science in the Public Domain
Three units of Bio 496 over at least two semesters
Three units of Bio 498 over at least two semesters

Students may choose elective courses according to their interests for the remainder of their Upper-Division Units, but must take a minimum of four laboratory classes. At least 16 of the Upper-Division Units for the major must be completed at USD.

The Minor

Minimum requirements for the minor are: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L, and 300 or 305, and at least four units of upper division biology, for a total of at least 18 units. For the biology minor, total credit for BIOL 496, BIOL 497, and BIOL 498 is limited to three units. Courses for the minor should be selected with the aid of a biology faculty advisor. At least four units of upper division biology must be taken at USD.

The Life Science Teaching Credential

The California Life Science Teaching Credential requires a major in biology. Students seeking this credential should consult a biology faculty advisor.

Special Programs of Study

Several model programs of study are listed below and should serve to illustrate the adaptable nature of the biology curriculum. Specific programs of study other than those listed below can be designed with the aid of an advisor from the biology faculty. Students interested in biotechnology, environmental biology, or medical technology should consult with their advisor regarding appropriate course selection.

Marine Biology

In addition to the general program, BIOL 301, 346, 350, and 351 are recommended. A minor in marine science is recommended for those students interested in field applications. The University of San Diego also offers a major in marine science (see marine science section).

Pre-Health Sciences Programs of Study

The biology major provides an excellent preparation for those students interested in pursuing future studies in one of the health professional programs (medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, nursing, and physical therapy). Our curriculum provides students with a strong foundation in biological concepts as well as in the analytical and communication skills needed by health professionals. To assist students preparing for a career in the health sciences, the university’s Pre-Health Advising Office can provide students with specific program prerequisites, help locate volunteer and community service opportunities, and help students understand the professional school application process. By working together with the pre-health advisor and their academic advisor within the biology department, pre-health students can design a course of study within the Biology major that best prepares them for their chosen professional school.

Most of the prerequisite courses for the pre-health programs are included in the preparatory courses required for the biology major. In addition, many programs now strongly recommend or require additional courses in genetics (Bio 300), cell/molecular biology (BIOL 480, 482), statistics (BIOL 301), and biochemistry (Chem 331); an increasing number of dental, pharmacy, optometry, nursing, and physical therapy programs require human anatomy & physiology (BIOL 122, 123). Additional biology courses that would likely be of interest to those students planning to pursue a career in the medical field include Evolution of Vertebrate Structures (BIOL 320), Microbiology (BIOL 342), Animal Development (BIOL 376), Vertebrate Physiology (BIOL 478), Cell Physiology (BIOL 480) and Immunology (BIOL 484). Students should work with both their academic advisor and the Pre-health advisor to determine a schedule that is best suited for their future plans.

Undergraduate Research

Exposure to the research process can be a valuable component of the undergraduate experience. All biology students are invited to participate in the research programs of our faculty members. Alternatively, a student may wish to design a project of his/her own with faculty supervision. Students interested in graduate school will find the research experience an instructive preview of what lies ahead, and students applying to professional schools will find it a significant asset. USD students often publish their findings or present them at scientific meetings, including the annual USD Creative Collaborations.

Courses for Non-Majors (BIOL)

BIOL 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106 108, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, and 115 will satisfy the core curriculum requirement. BIOL 101, 102, 104 105, and 106 are three hours of lecture weekly. None of these courses will satisfy requirements for the major or minor in biology.

BIOL 101, 111 SURVEY OF BIOLOGY (3)
A one-semester course in the general concepts of biology providing the non-major with an overview of the living world and the principles of life processes. BIOL 101 is lecture only, 111 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 102, 112 ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY (3)
Investigation of the natural environment and the relationship of its biotic and abiotic components. Topics will include the ecosystem concept, population growth and regulation, and our modification of the environment. BIOL 102 is lecture only, 112 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week. Laboratory will include field trips, one of which will be an all-day weekend trip to the desert. Cross-listed as ENVI 102.

BIOL 103, 113 PLANTS AND PEOPLES (3)
A one-semester course about humans and their knowledge, uses, and abuses of plants. The biology of plants, selected protists, and fungi are considered from a scientific viewpoint; included are ecology, anatomy, morphology, physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnology. These organisms are also considered with regard to resource utilization and agriculture: the uses and abuses of plants for fibers; foods; beverages; medicinals and other ends occupy the majority of the course. Three hours of lecture weekly.

BIOL 104, 114 TOPICS IN HUMAN BIOLOGY (3)
This is a course in general biology with a human emphasis for non-majors. The general principles of evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and physiology are illustrated by reference to normal and abnormal human body function. Behavioral biology and ecology are also treated from a primarily human viewpoint. BIOL 104 is lecture only, 114 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 105, 115 PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE (3-4)
A study of human physiology and how the body accommodates physical exercise. Training procedures, health, and importance of nutrition and ergogenic aids are emphasized. BIOL 105 is lecture only for three units, BIOL 115 is three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: High school biology and chemistry are strongly recommended. Every semester.

BIOL 106 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND NEUROBIOLOGY (3)
A non-majors course designed for students interested in the human body, its composition, and function. The course will examine basic human physiology with special attention given to the brain and its function. Three hours of lecture weekly. Prerequisites: High school chemistry, anatomy, and physiology are strongly recommended.

BIOL 108 BIOLOGY OF BIRDS (3)
This integrated lab and lecture course covers a wide variety of subjects related to birds. The lecture addresses their evolution and ecology, their anatomy and physiology, and their behavior, especially during reproduction. The laboratory portion of the course illustrates the unique anatomy of birds and explains how they are classified, but most of the laboratories comprise a series of field trips to different local habitats to identify the large variety of avian species in San Diego. One field trip may be overnight to the desert. Two hours of lecture and one hour of laboratory weekly.

BIOL 110 LIFE SCIENCE FOR EDUCATORS (3)
A one-semester course in the general concepts of biology tailored for the liberal studies major. The course is designed to meet the subject matter requirement in life science for the Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. Topics covered include an overview of the scientific method, biochemical molecules, cell structure and function, anatomy and physiology of animals and plants, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Field trips and laboratory assignments will provide experience with selected biological principles and practices. Prerequisite: CHEM 105. Students majoring in liberal studies cannot take this course pass/fail. Two hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 122, 123 INTRODUCTORY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I AND II (4 / 4)
An introductory course in human body structure and function. Intended to meet the requirements of students preparing for allied health occupations. This course will not satisfy Core Life Science requirement or requirements for a major or minor in biology. Lecture and laboratory.

Courses for Biology Majors (BIOL)

BIOL 190 INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTION (3)
This one semester foundation course for biology majors provides an introduction to the mechanisms of inheritance, evolution, and ecology. Three hours of lecture weekly. No prerequisite. Offered every semester.

BIOL 221 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL DIVERSITY (3)
This one-semester foundation course for biology majors provides an introduction to the major groups of organisms with an emphasis on their structure, function, and evolutionary relationships. Three hours of lecture weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 221L is strongly recommended. Prerequisite: BIOL 190. Offered every semester.

BIOL 221L INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL DIVERSITY LABORATORY (1)
A laboratory course to complement the lecture material presented in BIOL 221. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, and concurrent registration in BIOL 221, or consent of the instructor. Offered every semester.

BIOL 225 INTRODUCTION TO CELL PROCESSES (3)
This one-semester foundation course for biology majors provides an introduction to the concepts of structure and function in biological systems at the molecular and cellular level. The topics of cell structure and function, biological macromolecules, respiration, photosynthesis, molecular biology, and selected areas of physiology are covered with emphasis on regulatory mechanisms. Three hours of lecture weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 225L is strongly recommended. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, and completion of, or concurrent registration in, CHEM 151. Offered every semester.

BIOL 225L INTRODUCTION TO CELL PROCESSES LABORATORY (1)
A laboratory course to complement the lecture material presented in BIOL 225. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, and concurrent registration in BIOL 225, or consent of instructor. Offered every semester.

BIOL 300 GENETICS (3)
A general course covering the mechanisms of inheritance at the molecular, organismal, and populational levels. Elementary probability and statistical methodology appropriate for the analysis of various genetic systems are introduced. Three hours of lecture weekly. Completion of BIOL 221 and 221L is strongly recommended. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 225, and 225L. Offered every semester.

BIOL 301 BIOSTATISTICS (3)
An introduction to data analysis and statistical testing. This course will prepare students for their upper division courses and independent research by teaching them the basics of hypothesis testing and the most common statistical tests used in biology. It will also cover basic experimental design, teach students how to use computer software for simple tests, and introduce students to modern nonparametric tests. Three hours weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L, 300 or 305. Offered in Spring semester.

BIOL 305 ECOLOGY (3)
A study of the distribution and abundance of organisms. This basic course will include a discussion of the physical environment, biogeography, and ecosystems. Community and population ecology will also be addressed. One or two weekend field trips may be required. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225 and 225L. Offered every semester.

BIOL 309 RESEARCH METHODS (2)
Development of basic methods and skills common to all research in Biology. Topics include use of literature, hypothesis formation and hypothesis testing with statistical inference, and critical evaluation of data. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300 or 305 depending upon instructor. Offered every semester.

BIOL 310 EVOLUTION (3)
A study of the fundamental concepts of evolution. The nature of variation, isolation, natural selection, and speciation will be discussed. Special topics include molecular, behavioral, developmental, and human evolution. Three hours of lecture per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305.

BIOL 320 EVOLUTION OF VERTEBRATE STRUCTURE (4)
The evolution of vertebrates is one of the most compelling stories in comparative biology. For millions of years vertebrates have flourished in the seas and on land by employing a variety of morphological specializations for feedings, locomotion, and reproduction. Yet, all vertebrates retain similarities in their design regardless of how structural components function in different lineages and environments. This course examines the shared and transformed anatomical attributes among vertebrates in the context of function and phylogenetic history. We pursue that objective by integrating lecture discussions with laboratory observations and directions. Two hours of lecture and two laboratories weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 340 DESERT BIOLOGY (4)
This course provides an introduction to the formation and climate of the local Colorado Desert and the evolution, ecology, physiological adaptations, and relationships of the organisms found there. The lab portion includes five days hiking and camping in Anza Borrego Desert State Park during Spring Break, where the floral and faunal communities of several habitat types will be studied through trapping, tracking, and experiment. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 342 MICROBIOLOGY (4)
An introduction to the microbial world, with emphasis given to bacteria, archaea and viruses. A diversity of prokaryotes is examined with particular attention devoted to differences in cell physiology, energy metabolism and ecology. Interactions between the human immune system and microbial pathogens are examined. The laboratory stresses procedures to culture and identify microorganisms. Two hours of lecture and two laboratories weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 344 PLANT SYSTEMATICS (4)
An introduction to the study of plant diversity. The evolution of plants is examined from the perspective of geological and ecological history. Significant plant groups will covered, with special emphasis on the flowering plants. Field identification of plant families will be emphasized in the laboratory sessions. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 346 VERTEBRATE NATURAL HISTORY (4)
A course in the biology of vertebrates. Although vertebrate structure, function, and development are studied, emphasis is on the behavior, evolution, and interaction of the vertebrate organism as a whole, or at the population level. Techniques of identification and study are covered in the laboratory and field. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory or field trip weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 348 INSECT BIOLOGY (4)
An introduction to the biology of insects, including their identification, evolution, structure, function, physiology, ecology, behavior, and conservation. The course includes compilation of an extensive insect collection and an overnight field trip to the desert. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 350 INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY (4)
A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on evolutionary relationships among the groups as expressed by their morphology and physiology. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 361 ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY (2)
A general survey of the ecological communities of San Diego County will acquaint students with local marine, freshwater, chaparral, and desert habitats. The course is primarily field study, and one overnight trip to the desert will be included. Identification of organisms and their ecological relationships will be stressed. One laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Cross-listed as ENVI 361. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 364 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (4)
Lectures address conservation topics from historical, legal, theoretical, and practical perspectives. The laboratory includes discussions of classic and current literature, student presentations, computer simulations of biological phenomena, analysis of data, and field trips to biological preserves, habitat restoration sites, and captive breeding facilities. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Cross-listed as ENVI 364. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 376 ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT (4)
This course explores embryonic development emphasizing mechanisms of differential gene expression and pattern formation at a cellular, molecular, and genetic level. Vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms (e.g. Xenopus, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis) which illustrate common developmental mechanisms will be examined in detail. In laboratory, living embryos and prepared slides will be studied, and molecular techniques will be employed to identify genes and examine gene expression. Three hours lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 382 TECHNIQUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (4)
An introduction to recombinant DNA techniques including bacterial culture, transformation, DNA purification, restriction analysis, cloning, hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, RNA isolation, library construction, and recombinant protein expression. Computer-based sequence analyses include database accession, BLAST, alignment, restriction analysis, and gene-finding. An investigative project will be undertaken. Two hours of lecture and two 3-hour laboratories weekly. Completion of CHEM 301/301L is recommended. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 416 POPULATION BIOLOGY (4)
The mechanisms of evolution and the dynamics of ecosystems are studied through the development of mathematical and computer models. The mathematics and computer programming experience required in this course beyond the level of MATH 130 (Survey of Calculus) will be introduced as needed. Research techniques used in investigating population phenomena are emphasized. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Biostatistics is highly recommended. Fall semester. Prerequisites: Introductory Calculus; BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 432 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (4)
An introduction to the theory, development, and operation of the electron microscope, with emphasis on development of knowledge of cellular fine structure. The laboratory portion of the course will focus on tissue preparation, microscope operation, and evaluation and presentation of electron microscopic data. Two hours of lecture and two laboratories weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 451W BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY (4)
An integrated study of marine organisms and their environments, stressing ecological, behavioral, and physiological relationships. Nearshore, deep sea, and open ocean environments will be covered. A weekend field trip may be required. Cross-listed as MARS 451W. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 460W ECOLOGY (4)
An integrated approach to plant and animal relationships in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The lecture investigates ecosystem energetics, population dynamics, community structure, and physiological adaptations. The laboratory concentrates on population and community problems in a few environments. There will be one overnight field trip to the desert. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 305; Introductory calculus. Biostatistics recommended. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 472 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (4)
An introduction to the basic processes occurring in vascular plants. Movement of water and solutes; photosynthesis and respiration; plant growth and development, including plant hormones and growth regulators; and plant reactions to environmental stress will be studied. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: One year of general chemistry with laboratory; BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 477 INVERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY (3)
The study of key physiological systems of invertebrate organisms with an emphasis on metabolism, respiration, osmoregulation, thermal relations, membrane, and neural physiology. The function of these systems will be examined by comparing invertebrates from various taxonomic groups and diverse habitats. Three hours of lecture weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 477L INVERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (1)
Laboratory-based study of several physiological systems of invertebrate organisms. Both traditional and recently developed techniques will be employed to demonstrate the functioning and integrative nature of these systems. One laboratory weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 477 is required. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 478 VERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY (3)
A detailed comparative examination of life processes in animals. Particular focus will be upon energy utilization, gas transport, kidney function, and muscle function of organisms from diverse habitats. Three hours of lecture weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 478L VERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (1)
An intensive exploration in a research setting of metabolic pathways, temperature acclimation, gas exchange, and ion regulation in a variety of vertebrate animals. One laboratory weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 478 is required. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 480 CELL PHYSIOLOGY (3)
Mechanisms of cell functions are emphasized. Topics covered include: membrane structure, membrane transport, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi functions, cell motility, energetics, mechanisms of hormone action, cellular immunology, and control of the cell cycle. Three hours of lecture weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L, 305 and CHEM 301. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 480L CELL PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (1)
The laboratory exercises introduce the student to some of the modern methods used to study cell function. One laboratory weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 480 is required. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 482 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (3)
A study of the structure and function of genes, emphasizing the understanding of gene regulation at many levels. The course will examine DNA structure and mechanics of replication, repair, transcription, and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Critical experiments will be studied to examine the development of concepts in molecular biology. Other special topics may include the molecular biology of development, cancer, HIV, and whole genome analysis. Three hours of lecture weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L, 300 and CHEM 301. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 484 IMMUNOLOGY (4)
A comprehensive introduction to immunology, focusing on vertebrate immunity. Topics covered include molecular and cellular components of the immune system and their regulation, long-term protection from disease, immune response to cancer, autoimmunity, hypersensitivity, immunodeficiencies, and transplants. Laboratory exercises will introduce students to immunological techniques and their applications. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 490 SENIOR PROJECT (4)
Students work on individual research projects that apply appropriate research techniques to test hypotheses. Completion of course will require oral presentation of results. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 309 with a grade of C- or better.

BIOL 491 SCIENCE IN THE PUBLIC DOMAN (3)
Students will design and implement science projects that demonstrate a basic scientific concept for elementary school students in an after school program. Students explore methods of pedagogy and the role of outreach and community service learning in communicating science. Tasks include practice grant-writing, hypothesis testing and assessment. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 309 with a grade of C- or better.

BIOL 494 TOPICS IN BIOLOGY (1-4)
An in-depth evaluation of selected topics in the biological sciences. Issues of current or historical interest are addressed. May be repeated when topic changes. A total of four units may be applied to the biology major or minor. Prerequisites: BIOL 190, 221, 221L, 225, 225L and 300 or 305 depending upon topic.

BIOL 495 SENIOR SEMINAR (1)
The techniques of seminar presentation will be studied by preparing and presenting individual seminars on topics of interest. Enrollment for credit is limited to seniors.

BIOL 496 RESEARCH (1-3)
Students develop and/or assist in research projects in various fields of biology working with Biology Department faculty member. The study may involve literature searching, on and off campus research, and attendance at seminars at other leading universities and scientific institutions. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Total credit in BIOL 496 is normally limited to three units.

BIOL 497 TECHNIQUES IN BIOLOGY (1-3)
Training and practice in those areas of biological science of practical importance to the technician, teacher, and researcher. To include, but not be limited to: technical methodology, preparation and technique in the teaching laboratory, and routine tasks supportive to research. Prerequisite: consent of instructor. Total credit in BIOL 497 is normally limited to three units.

BIOL 498 INTERNSHIP IN BIOLOGY (1-3)
This course offers experience in the practical and experimental application of biological principles. Students will be involved in research projects conducted by agencies and institutions outside the university, such as state parks, zoos, and biological industries. Enrollment is arranged on an individual basis according to a student’s interest and background, and is dependent on positions available and faculty approval. A maximum of 3 Upper-Division Units can be earned toward fulfillment of the requirements of the major.