APA Citation Guides

How to Cite Sources According to the APA Style Guide

This brief guide is to be used to organize your References page. The guide is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (LBF76.7.P83 2010, Copley Library Reference). Consult the manual to cite materials not included (e.g. advertisements, speeches, etc.), as well as for Copyright or Content Notes.

In-text Citations: Basics

  1. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parenthesis following the identification of the authors. E.g. Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically significant.
  2. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and year of publication appear in parentheses. E.g. Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991).
  3. When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. E.g. Patients receiving prayer had "less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated" (Byrd, 1988, p. 829).

Print Source Citations


Palourzian, R.F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Article in an Edited Book

O'Neil, J.M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B.R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, NY: Springer.

Journal Article Accessed Online (One Author)

Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105 (2), 221-232. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

Journal Article Accessed Online (Two Authors)

Russell, J.R., & Rostain, A.L. (2007). Psychological treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: Current evidence and future directions. Neuropsychology, 38 (4), 228-346. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.38.4.338

Newspaper Article

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Article in Regularly Published Conference Proceedings

Rissman, J., Greely, H.T., & Wagner, A.D. (2010) Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 9849-9854.

Additional Electronic Sources


LD Online. (2006). Speech and language milestone chart. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from http://www.ldonline.org.ld_indepth/speech-language/Ida_milestone.html

Full-text Government Publication from the Internet

Library of Congress. (1989). Bolivia: A Country study. Retrieved from http:lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/botoc.html

Guide compiled by:
Hugh Burkhart, Reference Librarian
Copley Library, University of San Diego
(619) 260-2366

Download a PDF file of the APA Style Guide.

Check out Copley Library's Communication Studies resource page.