Audio and Video

  • Full-text transcript should be included for all pre-recorded audio or video.
  • Closed captions should be provided.
  • Text and soundtrack alternatives should be included for all video interactions.

Color Contrast

  • Color contrast should meet WCAG 2.0 AA standards to be considered accessible.
    • Level AA requires a contrast ratio of 4.5:1 for normal text and 3:1 for large text.
    • Level AAA requires a contrast ratio of 7:1 for normal text and 4.5:1 for large text.
  • Large text must be at least 18 point or 14 point bold. Thin/decorative fonts are more difficult to read at lower contrast levels.
  • An adequate contrast ratio needs to be maintained when images or CSS are disabled.


  • Text-only versions should be provided and contain the exact same information as the original document.
  • Links to documents should open up in a new window.
  • PDFs should be created as OCR (Optical Character Recognition). See how to Make PDFs Accessible.


  • Associate form labels with its respective field element.
  • Error messages should identify the error and describe them to the user in text.
  • ARIA tags should be used to identify elements.


  • Headings should be properly nested and in sequential order.
  • There should not be more than one H1 on a page. H1 is used only for the page title.


  • Alternate text should always be provided.
  • Complex graphics should be accompanied by text.
  • Images should not contain no more than 25% text.
  • Content should still be usable/accessible if images are disabled.


  • Avoid using generic or duplicate text for hyperlinks.
  • Links that open in a new window should warn the user of the link behavior.
    • The title attribute can be used to warn the user.
    • A warning in the content area such as "The following links open in a new window" may be preferred as well.
  • Emails should be marked up as links.


  • Skip Navigation links must be used to allow assistive devices to skip over the navigation and go directly to the content. Skip navigation links should not be used with persistent links, since these are considered key content.
  • ARIA tags should be used to specify menu items.


  • Tables should be used to organize data and not for layout purposes.
  • A table summary should be provided to explain the meaning or purpose of the table and its data.
  • Row and column headers should be marked appropriately.
  • There should be a clear relationship between data cells and header cells.


  • Document language should be defined
  • ARIA tags should be used for tabs, sliders and other types of "show/hide" content.
  • Content should be presented in the same order in which it is coded.


Typical accessibility issues identified in technical review include:

  • Generic/Redundant Hyperlink Text
  • Images with missing or inadequate alt text
  • Heading hierarchy and usage

Typical accessibility issues requiring developer intervention:

  • Forms (ARIA tags and labels)
  • Tables (Cell Labeling and Association)