Focus is on identification and distinction of characteristics and needs that qualify an individual for special education services according to federal and state law. The principles of action research and global perspectives of special needs frame an investigation of the academic, social and behavioral needs of individuals. Candidates use a global historical lens to understand the philosophy, education foundations and evidenced-based research that underpin the legal and ethical definition and service delivery options for individuals with exceptional needs. Emphasis is placed onindividualson individuals with a primary disability of specific learning disabilities, mild/moderate mental retardation, other health impairment, emotional disturbance, and autism spectrum disorders within the disability area, in kindergarten, grades 1 through 12, and classes organized primarily for adults in services across the continuum of program options available. Candidates explore how cultural, community and individual diversity and the needs of English learners influence classification and placement.