Preliminary Steps for Unclear, Incomplete or Incorrect Citations
- Bieber Dictionary of Legal Abbreviations, 6th ed.
LRC Ref. Desk & Ref. KF 246P74
- Web search – Try searching variations on the information you have (just author’s last name and keywords from the title; try alternate spellings of author’s last name).
- Look for author’s CV listing published works or someone else’s citation to the source you need
- Record as much info as you can, even if BlueBook citation does not call for it, because it may be helpful in locating the item (e.g., Publisher, ISBN (books), and ISSN (journals)).
- Look for a PDF copy of the original source document online. Institutional authors (gov’t and non-profit orgs.) often post their pubs. online; some professors’ bios link to PDFs of their articles
- Westlaw and Lexis – Useful if you do not have an exact citation for an article and were not able to figure it out with a Google search.
- Search using field restrictors with whatever reliable information you do have
- Documents are not PDF so they are generally not acceptable for citechecking. If you’re under a tight deadline, you may choose to citecheck content to the Westlaw/Lexis version while you wait for the print or PDF version to arrive to verify pin cites.
- Sally (library catalog) – You can search for books several ways: by title, author or keyword (if you're not quite sure of the exact title). If Copley or the LRC owns the book, the catalog will tell you its location, call number, and if it's checked out or not.
- Circuit and other local libraries –Their library catalogs will tell you if a particular library owns it, where it’s located, and whether it’s currently checked out:
You can request Circuit books to be delivered to the LRC, by logging in with your MySanDiego credentials or library barcode. ***Before submitting a Circuit request, check the TWEN page to see if another citechecker has already requested the book. After submitting a Circuit request, post a notice to TWEN.
- Google Books – Scanned PDF pages of many books are searchable. If no longer protected by ©, you can see all pages. If under ©, you can search and see portions of the text.
- WorldCat – Mega-catalog where you should be able to find a record for almost any book/periodical. If you don’t find it here, there may be an error in the info your author gave you. When you find a book here, write down the ISBN number. Different editions by different publishers will have different pagination; you must find the edition your author used to verify pin cites.
- ILL request – Follow procedure for requesting Inter-Library Loans.
- Sally (library catalog) – Search for newspaper title. Copley has many newspapers in microform.
- Circuit andother local libraries – Search for newspaper title. You won’t be able to request delivery of news articles via the Circuit, but you can visit those libraries.
- Website of specific newspaper – some newspapers maintain their own online archives, which may or may not be PDF images of the original print source.
- Lexis – Search content of specific newspapers or combined news sources. Typically coverage is post-1994 (varies by title), but Lexis does not provide PDF images of newspaper articles.
- ILL request – If the article is not available locally in print, microform, or electronically, you may submit an ILL request after following the ILL procedure below. The LRC will not ILL newspaper articles that are available electronically. Most libraries do not retain print copies and will not lend microform.
- Sally (library catalog) – Search for journal title. The catalog will tell you if we have access to the journal in print, microform, on HeinOnline, Westlaw/Lexis, or another database.
- Print Journals – On the 1st Mezz. & 2nd floor of the LRC; organized alphabetically. Non-law and multidisciplinary journals may be available at Copley.
- HeinOnline and JStor – Articles are PDF copies of original source so they are as good as citechecking to the print version. No log-in required to use these DBs on-campus. Off-campus, sign in with MySanDiego credentials or library barcode.
- Academic Search Premier – Some titles are PDF images of the original source. Useful for non-law & multi-disciplinary journals.
- Circuit and other local libraries – Do a title search for name of journal. You won’t be able to request delivery of journal articles via the Circuit, but you can visit those libraries.
- Web search – see p. 1 “Preliminary Steps”
- ILL request – If the article is not available locally in print, microform, or a PDF image of the original source, you may submit an ILL request following the ILL procedure below.
- PDF copies of source documents are acceptable for cite-checking purposes. If a PDF is available, the LRC will not ILL a hard copy of it, front matter (table of contents, title & © page), or photocopies of the spine
- Federal Digital System – Provides PDF copies of original sources, including the CFRs, Federal Register, Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, & many other government publications.
- View a series of guides for cite-checkers looking for foreign sources
LRC Interlibrary Loan Procedures for Cite-Checkers
- Be sure you have exhausted all avenues outlined above. Consult a reference librarian if you have any
- Check TWEN to see if anyone else has already requested your item.
- Contact your managing editor for permission to submit an ILL request.
- Collect the following information:
|Entire book||Copies of chapter of book||Copies of pages of book||Journal/News article|
|Title||Title||Title||Title of publication|
|ISBN #||ISBN #||ISBN #||ISSN #|
|Publisher||Publisher||Publisher||Vol. and Iss.|
|Chapter author and title||Article author and title|
|Beginning and ending page #s||Page #s needed||Beginning and ending page #s|
|Any additional pages: (Title & © pages, ToC)|
|The name of the author of the article & footnote # you are citechecking|
- Log into MySanDiego with your MySanDiego credentials. The first time you submit a request you will have to create a profile.
- Under “New Request” click on “Book” or “Article, Case, Statute, etc.” to request copies.
- Fill out the form as completely as possible. Don’t forget to include info about which article & footnote # you are citechecking.
- Post a notice to the TWEN page that you have submitted an ILL request
- You should receive a confirmation that your request has been sent within a day or two. If you do not receive a confirmation, talk to a reference librarian.
- When the item arrives, you will be notified by email. Post a notice to your TWEN page that it has arrived (include the due date if the item is a book)
- Books will be on the shelf behind the reference desk. Copies will be posted to the TWEN page.
- Use ILL books and return them to the shelf behind the ref. desk for other cite-checkers to use.
- LRC will return books by the due date, so use them early. Renewals are at discretion of the lending library.
Important notes about ILL
- ILL process is not immediate – it can take 2 weeks +. Request items well before your deadline.
- Copies often arrive more quickly– if you don’t need entire book, consider requesting copies of pages instead.
- You must use the TWEN page regularly to look for and post notices about sources that have been ILL’ed. Duplicate requests are costly for the LRC and lending libraries.
- Items that the LRC will not ILL:
- Materials from libraries located outside of North America
- Newspaper articles
- Materials that are available in PDF copy of original source
- Front matter (table of contents, title and © page) for journal articles available in PDF
- Photocopies of book/journal spines
- Statute statutes if either the official or unofficial code is available locally. Bluebook rules permit citation to both official and unofficial codes.