Students entering the University of San Diego and/or declaring a major during 2018-2019, should follow information contained in the printed course catalog (also known as the "catalog of record") published on May 1, 2018. Access the catalog of record at http://catalogs.sandiego.edu.

The Biochemistry Major

Preparation for the Major

CHEM 151
151L
General Chemistry I
and General Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHEM 152
152L
General Chemistry II
and General Chemistry II Laboratory
4
CHEM 220Analytical Chemistry3
MATH 150Calculus I4
MATH 151Calculus II4
BIOL 240
240L
Bioenergetics and Systems
and Bioenergetics and Systems Laboratory
4
BIOL 242
242L
Genomes and Evolution
and Genomes and Evolution Laboratory
4
PHYS 270
270L
Introduction to Mechanics
and Mechanics Lab
4
PHYS 271
271L
Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism
and Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism Lab
4
Total Units35

Major Requirements

BIOL 300Genetics3
CHEM 301
301L
Organic Chemistry I
and Organic Chemistry I Laboratory
4
CHEM 302
302L
Organic Chemistry II
and Organic Chemistry II Laboratory
4
CHEM 330Techniques in Molecular Biology3
CHEM 311Physical Chemistry I3
or  CHEM 312 Physical Chemistry II
CHEM 331Biochemistry3
CHEM 332Biochemistry II3
CHEM 396Methods of Chemical Research1.5
Select one elective - see note below for list3
CHEM 435Biochemistry Laboratory4
Total Units31.5

Electives may be chosen upper-division chemistry courses or Biology restricted electivesBIOL 342, BIOL 376, BIOL 480, BIOL 482 or BIOL 484 or PHYS 340.

Majors must complete 31.5 units of upper division coursework in chemistry or the approved restricted electives.  CHEM 496 or CHEM 498 may not be applied toward the 31.5 unit requirement. Those planning for graduate work are recommended to take additional Upper-Division Electives in chemistry, biochemistry or biology depending on the area of interest.

As written the student will earn an ASBMB certified bachelor's degree. To obtain a second certification from the ACS, biochemistry majors must complete CHEM 440, select one upper division chemistry course (as either the elective or an additional course) and complete a research report with their research mentor.

Recommended Program of Study: Biochemistry

The following paradigm is included as a guide only, and should not be interpreted in a rigid sense. The major will is recognized and certified by the American Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Society (ASBMB) as described.  Students intending to obtain an ACS-certified degree must take CHEM 440 and submit a final research report. Elective courses in chemistry and biology may be taken at any time as long as the course prerequisites have been satisfied. Students are encouraged to consult with their academic advisor to ensure that their needs and interests will be met. 

Freshman Year
Semester IUnits
CHEM 151
151L
General Chemistry I4
MATH 1501Calculus I4
BIOL 240
240L
Bioenergetics and Systems (Or BIOL 242 with lab)4
Core or electives4-5
Semester IIHours
CHEM 152
152L
General Chemistry II4
MATH 151Calculus II4
BIOL 242
242L
Genomes and Evolution (Or BIOL 240 with lab)4
Core or electives3-4
Sophomore Year
Semester IHours
CHEM 301
301L
Organic Chemistry I4
CHEM 220Analytical Chemistry3
CHEM 396Methods of Chemical Research1.5
Core or electives4-5
Semester IIHours
CHEM 302
302L
Organic Chemistry II4
PHYS 270
270L
Introduction to Mechanics4
BIOL 300Genetics3
Core or electives4-5
Junior Year
Semester IHours
CHEM 331Biochemistry3
PHYS 271
271L
Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism4
Core or electives6-9
Semester IIHours
CHEM 330Techniques in Molecular Biology3
CHEM 312Physical Chemistry II (or CHEM 311 in Fall Senior Year)3
CHEM 332Biochemistry II3
Core or electives6-9
Senior Year
Semester IHours
CHEM 311Physical Chemistry I (Or CHEM 312 in Spring Junior Year)3
CHEM 435Biochemistry Laboratory4
Core or electives6-9
Semester IIHours
UD CHEM, BIOL of PHYS elective3-4
Core or electives8-12

Recommended Program of Study: Integrated Teacher Preparation Program (ITPP) Pathway 

The Integrated Teacher Preparation Program (ITPP) provides paths to 4-year science and math degrees that include a teaching credential and preparation for the California Subject Examination for Teachers (CSET). Students who are interested in middle or secondary education (grades 6-12) in California may earn a degree in biochemistry while simultaneously completing requirements for a teaching credential. The degree integrates content knowledge and laboratory practices in the discipline, evidence-based teaching/learning theories, teaching performance expectations, and pre-student teaching clinical practice while satisfying baccalaureate degree requirements and CTC single subject credential program standards. There is some flexibility to meet individual needs. Students are encouraged to consult the ITPP website (http://www.sandiego.edu/itpp) and advisors (itpp@sandiego.edu) to ensure that their needs and interests will be met.

In addition to all courses for the biochemistry major, students completing the ITPP pathway must also take the following:

EOSC 110Introduction to Geosciences4
EDUC 332PCurriculum and Methods of Teaching in Today's Global Secondary Classrooms3
EDUC 334PMethods of Teaching Literacy in Secondary Schools in a Global Society3
EDUC 337PFoundations in Curriculum and Instruction Theory: Secondary Praxis in Historical Context3
EDUC 381CMulticultural and Philosophical Foundations in a Global Society3
EDUC 382Psychological Foundations of Education in a Diverse Society3
EDUC 384CMethods of Teaching English Language and Academic Development in Crosscultural Contexts3
EDUC 491PStudent Teaching for the Single Subject Credential9
EDUC 491SStudent Teaching Seminar for the Single Subject Credential3
EDSP 389PHealthy Environments and Inclusive Education in a Global Society3
Total Units37

The following paradigm is included as a guide only, and should not be interpreted in a rigid sense.  Elective courses in chemistry may be taken at any time as long as the course prerequisites have been satisfied. 

Freshman Year
Semester IUnits
CHEM 151
151L
General Chemistry I4
MATH 1501Calculus I4
CC or Electives6-8
Semester IIHours
CHEM 152
152L
General Chemistry II4
MATH 151Calculus II4
CC or Electives6-8
Semester III (Summer)Hours
BIOL 240
240L
Bioenergetics and Systems4
EOSC 110Introduction to Geosciences4
Sophomore Year
Semester IHours
CHEM 301
301L
Organic Chemistry I4
CHEM 396Methods of Chemical Research1.5
PHYS 270
270L
Introduction to Mechanics4
EDUC 381CMulticultural and Philosophical Foundations in a Global Society3
CC or Electives3-4
Semester IIHours
CHEM 302
302L
Organic Chemistry II4
CHEM 220Analytical Chemistry3
PHYS 271
271L
Introduction to Electricity and Magnetism4
EDUC 382Psychological Foundations of Education in a Diverse Society3
Semester III (Summer)Hours
EDSP 389PHealthy Environments and Inclusive Education in a Global Society3
BIOL 242
242L
Genomes and Evolution4
Junior Year
Semester IHours
CHEM 331Biochemistry3
CHEM 311Physical Chemistry I3
BIOL 300Genetics3
PHIL 341Ethics and Education3
Semester IIHours
CHEM 330Techniques in Molecular Biology3
CHEM 332Biochemistry II3
EDUC 332PCurriculum and Methods of Teaching in Today's Global Secondary Classrooms3
EDUC 384CMethods of Teaching English Language and Academic Development in Crosscultural Contexts3
CC or Electives6-8
Semester III (Summer)Hours
CC or Electives6
Senior Year
Semester IHours
EDUC 334PMethods of Teaching Literacy in Secondary Schools in a Global Society3
EDUC 491PStudent Teaching for the Single Subject Credential9
EDUC 491SStudent Teaching Seminar for the Single Subject Credential3
Semester IIHours
UD CHEM, BIOL or PHYS elective3-4
CHEM 435Biochemistry Laboratory4
CC or Electives9-12

Students entering the University of San Diego and/or declaring a major during 2016-2017, should follow information contained in the printed course catalog (also known as the "catalog of record") published on October 1, 2016. Access the catalog of record at http://catalogs.sandiego.edu.

CHEM 101, CHEM 102, CHEM 103, CHEM 105, CHEM 111, CHEM 151, CHEM 151L, CHEM 152, CHEM 152L, CHEM 220, CHEM 296, CHEM 301, CHEM 301L, CHEM 302, CHEM 302L, CHEM 311, CHEM 312, CHEM 330, CHEM 331, CHEM 332, CHEM 335, CHEM 355, CHEM 396, CHEM 396W, CHEM 422, CHEM 424, CHEM 427, CHEM 435, CHEM 440, CHEM 489, CHEM 494, CHEM 496, CHEM 496H, CHEM 498

CHEM 101 | CHEMISTRY AND SOCIETY

Units: 3

Core Attributes: Physical Science-Pre F17 CORE

A course designed for the non-science major that focuses on the major ideas of modern chemistry and the role that chemistry plays in a technological society. The evolution of our understanding of atomic and molecular structure and chemical reactivity will be examined as examples of the scientific method and the very human nature of the scientific endeavor. The role of modern chemistry in both the creation and the solution of societal problems will also receive considerable attention. The problems examined, which may vary in different sections, include: the energy crisis, air and water pollution, global warming, nutrition and food additives, household chemicals, pesticides and agrochemicals, and nuclear power. Two lectures weekly. Every semester.

CHEM 102 | SCIENCE OF FOOD & COOKING

Units: 3 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Science/Tech Inquiry area, Lab, Physical Science-Pre F17 CORE

Course Description: This course is designed for the non-science major with a focus on food, cooking and baking while introducing foundational concepts in chemistry and biochemistry. Using a variety of approaches including hands-on activities, students will learn the chemical and biochemical principles of food and cooking. Students will investigate the molecular structure and changes that take place in food and drink while cooking and baking. Topics may include: making cheese and ice cream, spices and hot sauces, caramelization and food browning reactions, molecular gastronomy, taste and smell, cakes and cookies and chocolate. Students will participate in inquiry-based laboratories integrated throughout the semester while designing and performing scientific experiments to investigate the nature of food and cooking. Two hours of lecture per week and one four hour lab every other week. No prerequisites.

CHEM 103 | DNA SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Units: 3

Core Attributes: Physical Science-Pre F17 CORE

A course designed for the non-science major that covers basic physical science concepts and how they apply to the discovery and study of DNA as the genetic material, the simplicity of the three-dimensional structure of DNA and the many implications to be drawn from this structure. It explores the concepts involved in recombinant DNA technology and its applications to the pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, forensics, gene therapy and AIDS research. Two lectures weekly. Every semester.

CHEM 105 | PHYSICAL SCIENCES FOR K-8 TEACHERS

Units: 3 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Science/Tech Inquiry area, Lab

A laboratory/lecture/discussion class designed to lead students toward an understanding of selected topics in chemistry and physics. The course topics are selected to satisfy the physical science specifications of the science content standards for California Public Schools (K-12). Enrollment is limited to liberal studies majors. Two two-hour class meetings per week. Fall semester. This course is cross-listed with PHYS 105.

CHEM 111 | CHEMISTRY AND SOCIETY

Units: 3 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Science/Tech Inquiry area, Lab

A course designed for the non-science major that focuses on the major ideas of modern chemistry and the role that chemistry plays in a technological society. The evolution of our understanding of atomic and molecular structure and chemical reactivity will be examined as examples of the scientific method and the very human nature of the scientific endeavor. The role of modern chemistry in both the creation and the solution of societal problems will also receive considerable attention. The problems examined, which may vary in different sections, include: the energy crisis, air and water pollution, global warming, nutrition and food additives, household chemicals, pesticides and agrochemicals, and nuclear power. This course includes a laboratory that will satisfy the Core requirement for Science and Technology Inquiry. Two hours of lecture per week and one four hour lab every other week.

CHEM 151 | GENERAL CHEMISTRY I

Units: 3-4

Core Attributes: Science/Tech Inquiry area

Prerequisites: ( Passing the appropriate departmental placement test within the previous year or Passing the appropriate departmental placement test within the previous year or MATH 115 (Can be taken Concurrently) or MATH 130 (Can be taken Concurrently) or MATH 150 (Can be taken Concurrently)) and CHEM 151L (Can be taken Concurrently)

Part 1 of a two semester lecture course which introduces the fundamental principles of modern chemistry. These principles, which include atomic and molecular structure, periodicity, reactivity, stoichiometry, equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, bonding, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and states of matter, will be used in and expanded upon in more advanced courses. Three lectures weekly.

CHEM 151L | GENERAL CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY

Units: 1 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Quantitative reasoning comp, Science/Tech Inquiry area, Lab

Corequisites: CHEM 151

Part 1 of a two-semester laboratory course which introduces the concepts and techniques of experimental chemistry. CHEM 151L has one laboratory period that meets biweekly.

CHEM 152 | GENERAL CHEMISTRY II

Units: 3 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: First year Integration

Prerequisites: CHEM 151 and CHEM 151L and CHEM 152L (Can be taken Concurrently)

Part 2 of a two semester lecture course which introduces the fundamental principles of modern chemistry. These principles, which include atomic and molecular structure, periodicity, reactivity, stoichiometry, equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics, bonding, acid-base chemistry, redox chemistry, and states of matter, will be used in and expanded upon in more advanced courses. Three lectures weekly.

CHEM 152L | GENERAL CHEMISTRY II LABORATORY

Units: 1

Core Attributes: Lab

Prerequisites: CHEM 151 and CHEM 151L

Part 2 of a two-semester laboratory course which introduces the concepts and techniques of experimental chemistry. One laboratory period weekly.

CHEM 220 | ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: CHEM 152 and CHEM 152L

An introduction to the principles and practices of analytical chemistry with an emphasis on quantitative methods. Classical methods such as titrimetric and volumetric analyses as well as basic instrumental methods involving spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and chromatography will be performed. Some experiments will be of the project type. One laboratory and one lecture weekly.

CHEM 296 | INTRODUCTION TO UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH

Units: 1-2

Collaborative student-faculty research in the research laboratory of a faculty member in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. The course is taught on a pass/fail basis only.

CHEM 301 | ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I

Units: 3

Prerequisites: CHEM 152 and CHEM 152L and CHEM 301L (Can be taken Concurrently)

Part 1 of a two semester introduction to basic organic chemistry. The relationship of structure and bonding in organic compounds to reactivity will be emphasized. Reactions will be discussed from mechanistic and synthetic perspectives. Three lectures weekly. Fall Semester.

CHEM 301L | ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I LABORATORY

Units: 1

Core Attributes: Lab

Prerequisites: CHEM 152L and CHEM 301 (Can be taken Concurrently)

This lab is the first semester of a two-semester sequence. It introduces common organic lab techniques (including chromatography, extraction, recrystallization, distillation) used for separating and analyzing organic compounds. One laboratory period weekly. Fall semester.

CHEM 302 | ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II

Units: 3

Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and CHEM 301L and CHEM 302L (Can be taken Concurrently)

Part 2 of a two semester introduction to basic organic chemistry. The relationship of structure and bonding in organic compounds to reactivity will be emphasized. Reactions will be discussed from mechanistic and synthetic perspectives. Three lectures weekly. Spring semester.

CHEM 302L | ORGANIC CHEMISTRY II LABORATORY

Units: 1

Core Attributes: Lab

Prerequisites: CHEM 301 and CHEM 301L

This lab is the second semester of a two-semester sequence. Common organic lab techniques and spectroscopy are used to carry out and analyze multi-step organic syntheses One laboratory period weekly. Spring semester.

CHEM 311 | PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY I

Units: 3

Prerequisites: CHEM 152 and MATH 151 and PHYS 270 and PHYS 271 (Can be taken Concurrently)

This course covers modern physical chemistry, including atomic and molecular structure, and spectroscopy. Three lectures weekly. Fall semester.

CHEM 312 | PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II

Units: 3

Prerequisites: MATH 151 and CHEM 152 and PHYS 270 and PHYS 271 (Can be taken Concurrently)

This course focuses on the classical principles of thermodynamics, kinetics, and statistical mechanics. Three lectures weekly. Spring semester.

CHEM 330 | TECHNIQUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L

An introduction to recombinant DNA techniques including bacterial culture, transformation, nucleic acid purification, restriction analysis, DNA cloning, polymerase chain reaction, etc. Computer-based sequence analyses include database accession, BLAST, alignments, restriction analysis, gene-finding, and genomics. A cloning project generating new molecular reagents will be undertaken. 80 min of lecture and one 4-hour laboratory weekly. Completion of CHEM 301/301L is recommended.

CHEM 331 | BIOCHEMISTRY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: CHEM 302 and CHEM 302L

The structure, function, and metabolism of biomolecules. Structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and important accessory molecules (cofactors and metal ions) are covered, as well as enzyme kinetics and mechanism, thermodynamics, metabolism, and the regulation of metabolism. Three lectures weekly.

CHEM 332 | BIOCHEMISTRY II

Units: 3 Repeatability: No

Prerequisites: CHEM 331

This course advances the fundamental concepts of macromolecules, structure/function paradigms, enzyme mechanism & activity and metabolism gained in CHEM 331. We will study metabolic homeostasis, integrating anabolic/catabolic pathways and energy flux with nutrition/nutrient intake of essential and non-essential molecules. Regulatory control through allosteric, transcriptional/translational, and post-translational mechanisms will be examined as part of maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Where relevant, disease and pathology will be used to highlight these concepts. We will study signal transduction to address the flow of information within a system. As a capstone to our indepth study of biochemistry, we will examine cross-disciplinary applications of core biochemical concepts (structure/function, homeostasis, energy flow and information flow) in the context of systems biology, chemical biology and synthetic biology.

CHEM 335 | BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY

Units: 3

Core Attributes: Writing-Pre F17 CORE

Prerequisites: CHEM 220 and CHEM 331 (Can be taken Concurrently)

An advanced laboratory course that focuses on techniques for the preparation and quantitative analysis of proteins and other biomolecules. Experiments will include preparation of buffers, production and purification of proteins, and analysis of protein structure and function. Two laboratory periods weekly.

CHEM 355 | ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: CHEM 152 and CHEM 152L

A survey of the natural environment from a chemist’s point of view and the evaluation of chemicals from an environmental point of view. This course is concerned with the chemistry of air, water, soil and the biosphere in both pristine and polluted states. Pollution prevention and mitigation schemes are considered. Lab experiments include local fieldwork. Two 3-hour laboratory periods weekly.

CHEM 396 | METHODS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH

Units: 1.5 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Advanced Integration

Prerequisites: (CHEM 152 and CHEM 152L)

Introduction to the principles, methods, and communication of chemical and biochemical research. Techniques for searching the chemical literature, research ethics integrity and professional development are included. One 80 minute lecture per week. Every semester.

CHEM 396W | RESEARCH METHODS

Units: 3

Core Attributes: Writing-Pre F17 CORE

Prerequisites: CHEM 220

Introduction to the principles, methods, and communication of chemical and biochemical research. Lab work includes general and advanced techniques with considerable hands-on use of modern instruments, proper record-keeping, data management, and consideration of laboratory safety. Techniques for searching the chemical literature, peer review and research ethics are included. This course fulfills the upper division writing requirement. Students will write and edit a report in a format suitable for journal publication. May be taken either semester of junior year or fall semester of senior year. One lecture and eight hours of laboratory research weekly. Prereq: CHEM 220 and approval by department chair.

CHEM 422 | PHYSICAL METHODS

Units: 4 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Advanced writing competency, Lab

Prerequisites: CHEM 220 and CHEM 302 and CHEM 302L and CHEM 311 (Can be taken Concurrently)

An advanced laboratory course which probes concepts in physical chemistry using instrumental techniques including spectroscopy, chromatography and microscopy. Modern topics in physical chemistry, new technology in instrumentation, and computational data analysis will be integral parts of the laboratory in addition to some classical experiments and methods.

CHEM 424 | ADVANCED SYNTHESIS LABORATORY

Units: 4 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Lab

Prerequisites: CHEM 220 and CHEM 302 and CHEM 302L and CHEM 440 (Can be taken Concurrently)

An advanced laboratory course which integrates theory and experimental techniques from organic and inorganic chemistry. The course will focus on advanced topics of organic and inorganic chemistry (such as bioinorganic chemistry and organic materials) that are not included in CHEM 301, 301L, 302, 302L and 440. Emphasis will be placed on applications to the sub-fields of organic and inorganic chemistry. Two lectures and two laboratory periods weekly. Spring semester.

CHEM 427 | BIOPHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

Units: 4 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Diversity-Pre F17 CORE, Writing-Pre F17 CORE, Physical Science-Pre F17 CORE

Prerequisites: CHEM 331 and CHEM 335

This is an advanced lecture and laboratory course applying fundamental theories of physical chemistry in the context of thermodynamic, kinetic and quantum chemistry to understand the behavior of biological molecules and systems. Topics and experiments include spectroscopy, kinetics, thermodynamic of macromolecules, structure and function of protein, lipids, RNA and DNA as well as multimeric complex systems.

CHEM 435 | BIOCHEMISTRY LABORATORY

Units: 4 Repeatability: No

Core Attributes: Advanced writing competency, Lab

Prerequisites: CHEM 220

An advanced laboratory course that focuses on techniques for the preparation and quantitative analysis of proteins, DNA and other biomolecules. Experiments will include preparation of buffers, production and purification of proteins, and analysis of protein structure and function. Two laboratory periods weekly.

CHEM 440 | INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

Units: 3 Repeatability: No

Prerequisites: CHEM 302

The principles of inorganic chemistry, such as atomic and molecular structure, bonding, acid-base theory, and crystal field theory, are examined. Utilizing these principles, the chemistry of the elements of the periodic table is discussed, including the kinetics and mechanisms of reactions. The various fields within inorganic chemistry, including solid-state, coordination and organometallic chemistry are introduced. Three lectures weekly. Fall semester.

CHEM 489 | MAJOR FIELD TEST IN CHEMISTRY

Units: 0

As a part of the department’s assessment program, each graduating senior is required to take the major field test in chemistry. A student who fails to take the major field test may be restricted from graduating. Every year.

CHEM 494 | SPECIAL TOPICS IN CHEMISTRY/BIOCHEMISTRY

Units: 3-4 Repeatability: Yes (Repeatable if topic differs)

Rotating in-depth courses focused on various chemical and biochemical topics based primarily on the expertise of faculty. Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for credit when topic changes.) Prereq: Varied.

CHEM 496 | UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH

Units: 0.5-3 Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for Credit)

Core Attributes: Law - Experiential

Collaborative student-faculty research in the research laboratory of a faculty member in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. The course is taught on a pass/fail basis only. Prereq: Approval by department chair.

CHEM 496H | HONORS UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH (1-3)

Units: 1-3

Collaborative student-faculty research in the research laboratory of a faculty member in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry. The course is taught on a pass/fail basis only. Prereq: Approval by department chair, membership in the Honors Program.

CHEM 498 | RESEARCH INTERNSHIP

Units: 1-2

Prerequisites: CHEM 151 and CHEM 151L

This course offers experience in the practical and experimental application of chemical or biochemical principles. Students will be involved in research projects conducted by agencies and institutions outside the University, such as chemical/biochemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Enrollment is arranged on an individual basis according to a student’s interest and background, and is dependent on positions available and faculty approval. A maximum of 2 upper-division units can be earned toward fulfillment of the requirements of the major.