Biology Courses

The Department of Biology offers a program that allows the student to obtain a thorough preparation for graduate or professional school, to meet state requirements for a teaching credential in the life sciences, to acquire the laboratory training necessary for entry into advanced programs in biotechnology, or to supplement other major studies with a broad background in biology.

Students entering the University of San Diego and/or declaring a major during 2016-2017, should follow information contained in the printed course catalog (also known as the "catalog of record") published on October 1, 2016. Access the catalog of record at http://catalogs.sandiego.edu.

BIOL 101, BIOL 102, BIOL 103, BIOL 104, BIOL 108, BIOL 110, BIOL 111, BIOL 112, BIOL 113, BIOL 114, BIOL 115, BIOL 116, BIOL 190, BIOL 212, BIOL 213, BIOL 221, BIOL 221L, BIOL 225, BIOL 225L, BIOL 300, BIOL 301, BIOL 305, BIOL 309, BIOL 310, BIOL 320, BIOL 330, BIOL 332, BIOL 340, BIOL 342, BIOL 344, BIOL 346, BIOL 348, BIOL 350, BIOL 361, BIOL 364, BIOL 376, BIOL 416, BIOL 432, BIOL 451W, BIOL 472, BIOL 477, BIOL 477L, BIOL 478, BIOL 478L, BIOL 480, BIOL 480L, BIOL 482, BIOL 484, BIOL 490, BIOL 491, BIOL 494, BIOL 495, BIOL 496, BIOL 497, BIOL 498

BIOL 101 | SURVEY OF BIOLOGY

Units: 3

A one-semester course in the general concepts of biology providing the non-major with an overview of the living world and the principles of life processes. BIOL 101 is lecture only, 111 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 102 | ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

Units: 3

Investigation of the natural environment and the relationship of its biotic and abiotic components. Topics will include the ecosystem concept, population growth and regulation, and our modification of the environment. BIOL 102 is lecture only, 112 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week. Laboratory will include field trips, one of which will be an all-day weekend trip to the desert. Cross-listed as ENVI 102.

BIOL 103 | PLANTS AND PEOPLE

Units: 3

A one-semester course about humans and their knowledge, uses, and abuses of plants. The biology of plants, selected protists, and fungi are considered from a scientific viewpoint; included are ecology, anatomy, morphology, physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnology. These organisms are also considered with regard to resource utilization and agriculture: the uses and abuses of plants for fibers; foods; beverages; medicinals and other ends occupy the majority of the course. BIOL 103 is lecture only, 113 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 104 | TOPICS IN HUMAN BIOLOGY

Units: 3

This is a course in general biology with a human emphasis for non-majors. The general principles of evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and physiology are illustrated by reference to normal and abnormal human body function. Behavioral biology and ecology are also treated from a primarily human viewpoint. BIOL 104 is lecture only, 114 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 108 | BIOLOGY OF BIRDS

Units: 3

This integrated lab and lecture course covers a wide variety of subjects related to birds. The lecture addresses their evolution and ecology, their anatomy and physiology, and their behavior, especially during reproduction. The laboratory portion of the course illustrates the unique anatomy of birds and explains how they are classified, but most of the laboratories comprise a series of field trips to different local habitats to identify the large variety of avian species in San Diego. One field trip may be overnight to the desert. Two hours of lecture and one hour of laboratory weekly.

BIOL 110 | LIFE SCIENCE FOR EDUCATORS

Units: 3

A one-semester course in the general concepts of biology tailored for the liberal studies major. The course is designed to meet the subject matter requirement in life science for the Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. Topics covered include an overview of the scientific method, biochemical molecules, cell structure and function, anatomy and physiology of animals and plants, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Field trips and laboratory assignments will provide experience with selected biological principles and practices. Students majoring in liberal studies cannot take this course pass/fail. Two hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 111 | SURVEY OF BIOLOGY WITH LAB

Units: 3-4

A one-semester course in the general concepts of biology providing the non-major with an overview of the living world and the principles of life processes. BIOL 101 is lecture only, 111 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 112 | ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY WITH LAB

Units: 3

Investigation of the natural environment and the relationship of its biotic and abiotic components. Topics will include the ecosystem concept, population growth and regulation, and our modification of the environment. BIOL 102 is lecture only, 112 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week. Laboratory will include field trips, one of which will be an overnight trip to the desert. Cross-listed as ENVI 102.

BIOL 113 | PLANTS AND PEOPLE WITH LAB

Units: 3

A one-semester course about humans and their knowledge, uses, and abuses of plants. The biology of plants, selected protists, and fungi are considered from a scientific viewpoint; included are ecology, anatomy, morphology, physiology, taxonomy, and biotechnology. These organisms are also considered with regard to resource utilization and agriculture: the uses and abuses of plants for fibers; foods; beverages; medicinals and other ends occupy the majority of the course. BIOL 103 is lecture only, 113 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 114 | TOPICS IN HUMAN BIOLOGY WITH LAB

Units: 3

This is a course in general biology with a human emphasis for non-majors. The general principles of evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and physiology are illustrated by reference to normal and abnormal human body function. Behavioral biology and ecology are also treated from a primarily human viewpoint. 104 is lecture only, 114 is two hours of lecture per week and one laboratory every other week.

BIOL 115 | PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE WITH LAB

Units: 4

A study of human physiology and how the body accommodates physical exercise. Training procedures, health, and importance of nutrition and ergogenic aids are emphasized. PHYS 105 is lecture only for 3 units, 115 is three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 116 | EARTH AND LIFE SCIENCE FOR EDUCATORS

Units: 3

A laboratory/lecture/discussion class inthe general concepts of earth science and life science for Liberal Studies majors. The course topics are selected to satisfy the earth and life science specifications for the science content standards for California Public Schools and the Multiple Subject Teaching Credential. Laboratory activities and field trips will provide experience with selected principles and relate them to suggested teaching practice at the K-8 grade level. Two two-hour laboratory sessions per week. Spring semester.

BIOL 190 | INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTION

Units: 3

This one semester foundation course for biology majors provides an introduction to the mechanisms of inheritance, evolution, and ecology. Three hours of lecture weekly. No prerequisite. Offered every semester.

BIOL 212 | ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I

Units: 4

A two-semester course on the fundamentals of human anatomy and physiology. The biological function and structure of the cells, tissues, and major organ systems in the body will be covered, along with basic concepts of chemistry and physics. The course will also cover the pathological conditions that are most often seen by medical personnel, and will discuss how the loss of homeostasis leads to pathology or disease. BIOL 212 is the prerequisite for BIOL 213, and this combination is intended to meet the requirements of students preparing for allied health occupations. This course will not satisfy Core Life Science requirement or requirements for a major or minor in biology. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 213 | ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY II

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 212

A two-semester course on the fundamentals of human anatomy and physiology. The biological function and structure of the cells, tissues, and major organ systems in the body will be covered, along with basic concepts of chemistry and physics. The course will also cover the pathological conditions that are most often seen by medical personnel, and will discuss how the loss of homeostasis leads to pathology or disease. BIOL 212 is the prerequisite for BIOL 213, and this combination is intended to meet the requirements of students preparing for allied health occupations. This course will not satisfy Core Life Science requirement or requirements for a major or minor in biology. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 221 | INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL DIVERSITY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190

This one-semester foundation course for biology majors provides an introduction to the major groups of organisms with an emphasis on their structure, function, and evolutionary relationships. Three hours of lecture weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 221L is strongly recommended.

BIOL 221L | INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL DIVERSITY LAB

Units: 1

Prerequisites: BIOL 190

A laboratory course to complement the lecture material presented in BIOL 221.

BIOL 225 | INTRODUCTION TO CELL PROCESSES

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 (Can be taken Concurrently) and CHEM 151 (Can be taken Concurrently) and CHEM 151L (Can be taken Concurrently)

This one-semester foundation course for biology majors provides an introduction to the concepts of structure and function in biological systems at the molecular and cellular level. The topics of cell structure and function, biological macromolecules, respiration, photosynthesis, molecular biology, and selected areas of physiology are covered with emphasis on regulatory mechanisms. Three hours of lecture weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 225L is strongly recommended.

BIOL 225L | INTRODUCTION TO CELL PROCESSES LABORATORY

Units: 1

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 (Can be taken Concurrently) and BIOL 225 (Can be taken Concurrently) and CHEM 151 (Can be taken Concurrently) and CHEM 151L (Can be taken Concurrently)

A laboratory course to complement the lecture material presented in BIOL 225.

BIOL 300 | GENETICS

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L

A general course covering the mechanisms of inheritance at the molecular, organismal, and populational levels. Elementary probability and statistical methodology appropriate for the analysis of various genetic systems are introduced. Three hours of lecture weekly.

BIOL 301 | BIOSTATISTICS

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and (BIOL 300 or BIOL 305)

An introduction to data analysis and statistical testing. This course will prepare students for their upper division courses and independent research by teaching them the basics of hypothesis testing and the most common statistical tests used in biology. It will also cover basic experimental design, teach students how to use modern computer software for data management, graphical presentation, and statistical tests. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 305 | ECOLOGY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L

A study of the distribution and abundance of organisms. This survey course will include a discussion of the physical environment, biogeography, and ecosystems. Community and population ecology will also be addressed, and quantitative approaches will be emphasized. Field trips may be required. Marine Science majors or Environmental Studies majors may substitute MARS 300 for BIOL 305.

BIOL 309 | RESEARCH METHODS

Units: 2 Repeatability: No

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L

Development of basic methods and skills common to all research in Biology. Topics include use of literature, hypothesis formation and hypothesis testing with statistical inference, and critical evaluation of data.

BIOL 310 | EVOLUTION

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 305

A study of the fundamental concepts of evolution. The nature of variation, isolation, natural selection, and speciation will be discussed. Special topics include molecular, behavioral, developmental, and human evolution. Three hours of lecture per week.

BIOL 320 | EVOLUTION OF VERTEBRATE STRUCTURE

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 305

The evolution of vertebrates is one of the most compelling stories in comparative biology. For millions of years vertebrates have flourished in the seas and on land by employing a variety of morphological specializations for feeding, locomotion, and reproduction. Yet, all vertebrates retain similarities in their design regardless of how structural components function in different lineages and environments. This course examines the shared and transformed anatomical attributes among vertebrates in the context of function and phylogenetic history. We pursue that objective by integrating lecture discussions with laboratory observations and directions. Two hours of lecture and two laboratories weekly.

BIOL 330 | TECHNIQUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L

An introduction to recombinant DNA techniques including bacterial culture, transformation, nucleic acid purification, restriction analysis, DNA cloning, polymerase chain reaction, etc. Computer-based sequence analyses include database accession, BLAST, alignments, restriction analysis, gene-finding, and genomics. A cloning project generating new molecular reagents will be undertaken. 80 min of lecture and one 4-hour laboratory weekly. Completion of CHEM 301/301L is recommended.

BIOL 332 | BIOCHEMISTRY II

Units: 3

Prerequisites: CHEM 331

This course advances the fundamental concepts of macromolecules, structure/function paradigms, enzyme mechanism & activity and metabolism gained in CHEM 331. We will study metabolic homeostasis, integrating anabolic/catabolic pathways and energy flux with nutrition/nutrient intake of essential and non-essential molecules. Regulatory control through allosteric, transcriptional/translational, and post-translational mechanisms will be examined as part of maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Where relevant, disease and pathology will be used to highlight these concepts. We will study signal transduction to address the flow of information within a system. As a capstone to our indepth study of biochemistry, we will examine cross-disciplinary applications of core biochemical concepts (structure/function, homeostasis, energy flow and information flow) in the context of systems biology, chemical biology and synthetic biology.

BIOL 340 | DESERT BIOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 305

This course provides an introduction to the formation and climate of the local Colorado Desert and the evolution, ecology, physiological adaptations, and relationships of the organisms found there. The lab portion includes five days hiking and camping in Anza Borrego Desert State Park during Spring Break, where the floral and faunal communities of several habitat types will be studied through trapping, tracking, and experiment. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 342 | MICROBIOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300

An introduction to the microbial world, with emphasis given to bacteria, archaea and viruses. The diversity of prokaryotes is surveyed with particular attention devoted to differences in cell physiology, energy metabolism and ecology. Interactions between humans and microbial pathogens are also examined. The laboratory stresses techniques in light microscopy and procedures used to culture and characterize microorganisms. Two hours of lecture and two laboratories weekly.

BIOL 344 | PLANT SYSTEMATICS AND EVOLUTION

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305

An introduction to the study of plant diversity. The evolution and relationships of plants are examined from the perspective of geological and ecological history. Significant plant groups will be discussed, with special emphasis on the flowering plants. Field identification of plant families will be emphasized in the laboratory sessions. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 346 | VERTEBRATE NATURAL HISTORY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300

A course in the biology of vertebrates. Although vertebrate structure, function, and development are studied, emphasis is on the behavior, evolution, and interaction of the vertebrate organism as a whole, or at the population level. Techniques of identification and study are covered in the laboratory and field. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory or field trip weekly.

BIOL 348 | INSECT BIOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305

An introduction to the biology of insects, including their identification, evolution, structure, function, physiology, ecology, behavior, and conservation. The course includes compilation of an extensive insect collection and an overnight field trip to the desert. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 350 | INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 305

A survey of the invertebrate animals with emphasis on evolutionary relationships among the groups as expressed by their morphology and physiology. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 361 | ECOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY

Units: 2

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 305

A general survey of the ecological communities of San Diego County will acquaint students with local marine, freshwater, chaparral, and desert habitats. The course is primarily field study, and one overnight trip to the desert will be included. Identification of organisms and their ecological relationships will be stressed. One laboratory weekly.

BIOL 364 | CONSERVATION BIOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 305

Lectures address conservation topics from historical, legal, theoretical, and practical perspectives. The laboratory includes discussions of classic and current literature, student presentations, computer simulations of biological phenomena, analysis of data, and field trips to biological preserves, habitat restoration sites, and captive breeding facilities. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 376 | ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300

This course explores embryonic development emphasizing mechanisms of differential gene expression and pattern formation at a cellular, molecular, and genetic level. Vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms (e.g., Xenopus, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis) that illustrate common developmental mechanisms will be examined in detail. In laboratory, living embryos and prepared slides will be studied, and molecular techniques will be employed to identify genes and examine gene expression. Three hours lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 416 | POPULATION BIOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 305 and (MATH 130 or MATH 150) and BIOL 300

The mechanisms of evolution and the dynamics of ecosystems are studied through the development of mathematical and computer models. The mathematics and computer programming experience required in this course beyond the level of MATH 130 (Survey of Calculus) will be introduced as needed. Research techniques used in investigating population phenomena are emphasized. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly. Biostatistics is highly recommended. Fall semester.

BIOL 432 | ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305

An introduction to the theory, development, and operation of the electron microscope, with emphasis on development of knowledge of cellular fine structure. The laboratory portion of the course will focus on tissue preparation, microscope operation, and evaluation and presentation of electron microscopic data. Two hours of lecture and two laboratories weekly.

BIOL 451W | BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305

An integrated study of marine organisms and their environments, stressing ecological, behavioral, and physiological relationships. Nearshore, deep sea, and open ocean environments will be covered. A weekend field trip may be required. Cross-listed as MARS 451W.

BIOL 472 | PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305 and CHEM 151 and CHEM 151L and CHEM 152 and CHEM 152L

An introduction to the basic processes occurring in vascular plants. Movement of water and solutes; photosynthesis and respiration; plant growth and development, including plant hormones and growth regulators; and plant reactions to environmental stress will be studied. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 477 | INVERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305

The study of key physiological systems of invertebrate organisms with an emphasis on metabolism, respiration, osmoregulation, thermal relations, membrane, and neural physiology. The function of these systems will be examined by comparing invertebrates from various taxonomic groups and diverse habitats. Three hours of lecture weekly.

BIOL 477L | INVERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY LAB

Units: 1

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305 (Can be taken Concurrently)

Corequisites: BIOL 477

Laboratory-based study of several physiological systems of invertebrate organisms. Both traditional and recently developed techniques will be employed to demonstrate the functioning and integrative nature of these systems. One laboratory weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 477 is required. Offered every Fall semester.

BIOL 478 | VERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300

A detailed comparative examination of life processes in animals. Particular focus will be upon energy utilization, gas transport, kidney function, and muscle function of organisms from diverse habitats. Three hours of lecture weekly.

BIOL 478L | VERTEBRATE PHYSIOLOGY LAB

Units: 1

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305 and BIOL 478 (Can be taken Concurrently)

An intensive exploration in a research setting of metabolic pathways, temperature acclimation, gas exchange, and ion regulation in a variety of vertebrate animals. One laboratory weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 478 is required. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 480 | CELL PHYSIOLOGY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and CHEM 301 (Can be taken Concurrently) and CHEM 301L (Can be taken Concurrently)

Mechanisms of cell functions are emphasized. Topics covered include: membrane structure, membrane transport, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi functions, cell motility, energetics, mechanisms of hormone action, and control of the cell cycle. Three hours of lecture weekly.

BIOL 480L | CELL PHYSIOLOGY LAB

Units: 1

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305 and BIOL 480 (Can be taken Concurrently) and CHEM 301

The laboratory exercises introduce the student to some of the modern methods used to study cell function. One laboratory weekly. Concurrent registration in BIOL 480 is required. Offered every Spring semester.

BIOL 482 | MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305 and CHEM 301

A study of the structure and function of genes, emphasizing the understanding of gene regulation at many levels. The course will examine DNA structure and mechanics of replication, repair, transcription, and translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Critical experiments will be studied to examine the development of concepts in molecular biology. Other special topics may include the molecular biology of development, cancer, HIV, and whole genome analysis. Three hours of lecture weekly.

BIOL 484 | IMMUNOLOGY

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 300 and BIOL 305

A comprehensive introduction to immunology, focusing on vertebrate immunity. Topics covered include molecular and cellular components of the immune system and their regulation, long-term protection from disease, immune response to cancer, autoimmunity, hypersensitivity, immunodeficiencies, and transplants. Laboratory exercises will introduce students to immunological techniques and their applications. Three hours of lecture and one laboratory weekly.

BIOL 490 | RESEARCH PROJECT

Units: 4

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 309

Students work on individual research projects that apply appropriate research techniques to test hypotheses. Completion of course will require oral presentation of results.

BIOL 491 | SCIENCE IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN

Units: 3

Prerequisites: BIOL 309 and BIOL 190 and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L

Students will design and implement science projects that demonstrate a basic scientific concept for elementary school students in an after school program. Students explore methods of pedagogy and the role of outreach and community service learning in communicating science. Tasks include practice grant-writing, hypothesis testing and assessment.

BIOL 494 | TOPICS IN BIOLOGY

Units: 1-4 Repeatability: Yes (Repeatable if topic differs)

Prerequisites: BIOL 190 and BIOL 221 and BIOL 221L and BIOL 225 and BIOL 225L and (BIOL 300 or BIOL 305)

An in-depth evaluation of selected topics in the biological sciences. Issues of current or historical interest are addressed. May be repeated when topic changes.

BIOL 495 | BIOLOGY CAPSTONE SEMINAR

Units: 2

Prerequisites: BIOL 490 or BIOL 491 or BIOL 496 or BIOL 498

The techniques of seminar preparation, presentation, and critique will be refined through collaboration with faculty and peers, culminating with each student presenting a public seminar on their Research Experience. Enrollment for credit is limited to seniors.

BIOL 496 | RESEARCH

Units: 1-4 Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for Credit)

Students develop and/or assist in research projects in various fields of biology working with a Biology Department faculty member. The study may involve literature searching, on and off campus research, and attendance at seminars at other leading universities and scientific institutions.

BIOL 497 | TECHNIQUES IN BIOLOGY

Units: 1-2 Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for Credit)

Training and practice in those areas of biological science of practical importance to the technician, teacher, and researcher. To include, but not be limited to: technical methodology, preparation and technique in the teaching laboratory, and routine tasks supportive to research. Total credit in BIOL 497 is limited to two units.

BIOL 498 | RESEARCH INTERNSHIP

Units: 1-3 Repeatability: Yes (Can be repeated for Credit)

This course offers experience in the practical and experimental application of biological principles. Students will be involved in research projects conducted by agencies and institutions outside the university, such as state parks, zoos, and biological industries. Enrollment is arranged on an individual basis according to a student’s interest and background, and is dependent on positions available and faculty approval. A maximum of 3 upper Division Units can be earned toward fulfillment of the requirements of the major.