Writing Standards

For nearly every project — brochures, articles, flyers, web pages — the writing comes first. Strong story telling is at the heart of USD’s identity, as is our reputation for academic excellence. Don’t allow your message to be discounted due to misspellings or poor grammar.

The University of San Diego has a comprehensive Writing Standards Guide, based on the Associated Press Stylebook, the standard used by most of the nation’s newspapers and publications. Some guidelines listed here are specific to USD. When there is a discrepancy, the university’s style guide takes precedence over the Associated Press Stylebook.

The Writing Standards Guide, which can be found online, goes into great detail about USD’s preferred style for referring to specific things when you write, such as when to abbreviate something and how to refer to the names of the founders, the university president, the names of schools and the names of buildings. The following pages answer some of the most common questions.

A

ABCs: Not ABC's.

academic degrees: The preferred style is to avoid abbreviation and to spell out degrees whenever possible. (Example: John Jones, who has a doctorate in leadership studies). Use an apostrophe when spelling out degrees. (Examples: bachelor's degree, master's degree). Use abbreviations — such as BA, MA, JD, LLM and PhD — when the preferred form is cumbersome. Academic abbreviations should not include periods. The degree should be set off by commas when used in the middle of a sentence. (Example: Jane Smith, JD, was the keynote speaker.) On occasion it may also be appropriate to use formal names of degrees. (Examples: John Smith received a Master of Arts in history. Jane Jones received a Bachelor of Science in chemistry. Michael White received his Juris Doctor in 2002. Mary Phillips is earning a Doctorate of Philosophy in the school of nursing.)

academic titles: Capitalize and spell out formal titles such as chancellor, chair, etc., only when they precede a name. This includes any modifiers germane to the title. Lowercase in all other instances (Examples: Provost John Smith; but John Smith, who serves as provost at the university).

acronyms: Spell out on first reference. Put the acronym in parentheses following the first reference. Take care when using acronyms in subsequent references. Not everything should be shortened to acronyms, especially if they are not universally known.

act, scene numbers: Capitalize when used with a figure. (Examples: Scene 2, Act 2. Scene 4). But lowercase in general use. (Examples: the second scene, the third act).

administrative departments: Use uppercase for the official department name, use lowercase in other instances (Examples: The project was led by campus ministry. The newsletter was produced by human resources. The Department of Human Resources is located in Maher Hall.)

administrative departments: Use uppercase for the official department name, use lowercase in other instances (Examples: The project was led by campus ministry. The newsletter was produced by human resources. The Department of Human Resources is located in Maher Hall.)

advisor: Not "adviser."

Alcalá: Include an accent over the final a in all references. (Note: Notice the direction of the accent — Right: á; Wrong: à.)
Note: Notice the direction of the accent — Right: á; Wrong: à. To do this in Word, type the first part of the word — Alcal — then go to insert, scroll down to symbol, which will reveal a list of symbols and special characters, click on á.

Alcalá Park: This is the name of the campus, but should not be used as a synonym for the name of the university.

Alcalá Vista Apartments: Capitalize. See the Vistas entry for additional information.

Alcalá Park West: In Fall 2006 the four buildings that make up what is known as Alcalá Park West, near the west entrance to campus, were given individual names: building 1 is called Barcelona; building 2 is called Coronado; building 3 is Avilá; and building 4 is Durango. The complex as a whole, however, may still be referred to as Alcalá Park West.

alma mater: Two words, no hyphen.

altar, alter: An altar is a table-like platform used in a church service. To alter is to change.

alum: Avoid using this common, yet slang, version of the word. The correct singular of alumni is alumnus.

alumna: singular, female

alumnae: plural, female

alumni: plural male; or plural male and female

alumni center: Use the building's proper name, Degheri Alumni Center, on the first reference. On second reference, the alumni center (all lowercase) is acceptable. Not the Alumni Center. Not The Alumni Center. Do not refer to the building simply as Degheri.

alumnus: singular, male

a.m., p.m.: Lowercase with periods. Avoid redundancies such as 10 a.m. in the morning.

ampersand (&): No campus entity is authorized to use an ampersand. All University of San Diego colleges, schools, centers, institutes, programs or departments must spell out the word "and" in their proper name in print, on the web and in other references.

annual: An event cannot be described as annual until it has been held at least two successive years. Do not use the term first annual. Instead, note that the sponsors plan to hold the event annually.

area codes: All area codes should be referenced with parentheses. (Example: To order tickets, call (619) 260- 4600.) See the telephone numbers entry for additional information.

army: Capitalize when referring to the U.S. Forces (Examples: the U.S. Army, the Army, Army regulations). Do not use the abbreviation USA. Use lowercase when referring to the forces of other nations. See the military titles entry for additional information.

Aromas: Not Aroma's. Not Aroma's Coffeehouse. Although it could be called Aromas coffeehouse (lowercase coffeehouse).

artwork titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Put the title in italics.

Ash Wednesday: Capitalize Ash. The first day of Lent, which is the season before Easter.

average, mean, median, norm: Average refers to the result obtained by dividing a sum of the number of quantities added together. (Example: The average of 7, 9 and 17 is calculated this way: 7+9+17=33÷3=11. The average is 11.) Mean, in its sense used in arithmetic and statistics, is an average and is determined by adding the series of numbers and dividing the sum by the number of cases. (Example: The mean temperature of five days with temperatures of 67, 62, 68, 69 and 64 is 66.) Median is the middle number of points in a series arranged in order of size. (Example: The median grade in the group of 50, 55, 85, 88 and 92 is 85. The average is 74.) Norm implies the standard of average performance for a given group. (Example: The child was below the norm for his age in reading comprehension.)

Avilá: This is the name of what had been known as the Alcalá Park West building 3, near the west entrance to campus.

B

bachelor of arts, bachelor of science: A bachelor's degree or a bachelor's is acceptable in any reference. Use the abbreviations BA or BS when the preferred form is cumbersome. Academic abbreviations should not include periods. The degree should be set off by commas when used in the middle of a sentence. (Example: Jane Smith, BA, was the keynote speaker. John Jones, BS, was named director of the program.) On occasion it may also be appropriate to use formal names of degrees. (Examples: Jane Smith received a Bachelor of Arts in history. John Jones received a Bachelor of Science in chemistry.) See the academic degrees entry for additional information.

baptism: See the sacraments entry for additional information.

barbecue: Not barbeque or Bar-B-Q or BBQ.

Barcelona: This is the name of what had been known as the Alcalá Park West 1 building, near the west entrance to campus.

Bay Area: Capitalize Bay Area, when referring to the nine-county region that has San Francisco as its focal point.

Bible: Capitalize, without quotation marks, when referring to the Scriptures in the Old Testament or the New Testament. Lowercase biblical in all use. Lowercase bible when used as a general term. (Example: My dictionary is my bible.) Do not abbreviate the individual books in the Bible. (Example: He read a verse from Genesis.) For citations listing chapters and verses, use this form — Matthew: 3:16 or Luke 21: 1-13 or 1 Peter 2:1. Do not abbreviate the names of books in the Bible.

bibliographies: The Associated Press Stylebook doesn't specify a style for bibliographies. Different disciplines follow different styles when listing bibliography information in their materials. Materials that feature only a specific discipline may use the bibliography style most appropriate for that discipline — most medical disciplines, for example, use the American Psychological Association. However, when a publication includes bibliographies from disciplines that use different bibliography styles, then the piece should use Chicago style, which is seen as a "universal" style.

Bishop: The title Bishop also may be referred to formally as the Most Reverend. Always capitalize and spell out the title when it immediately precedes a person's name. Do not capitalize if the reference follows a person's name. (Examples: Bishop Joseph Jones visited the university in 1989. Joseph Jones, the newly appointed bishop, visited the university in 1975. Bishop Joseph Jones on first reference and Bishop Jones on subsequent references.)

Bishop Charles Francis Buddy: (Oct. 4, 1887 to March 6, 1966) Bishop Charles Francis Buddy on first reference and Bishop Buddy on second reference. Bishop Charles Francis Buddy and Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill are the founders of the University of San Diego. Bishop Buddy founded the San Diego College for Men and the School of Law. Mother Hill founded the San Diego College for Women. The institutions merged in 1972 to become what is now the University of San Diego.

boats, ships: Capitalize the names of boats and ships. (Example: The USS Midway is a popular tourist attraction.) Do not use the pronoun her when referring to ships or boats. Use the pronoun it instead. See the USS entry for additional information.

board of directors: Capitalize only when referring to the proper name of a specific board of directors. (Example: The National Filmmakers Board of Directors meeting will be held in August.) Lowercase in general uses.

Board of Trustees: Capitalize.

Buddha, Buddhism: A major religion founded in India about 500 B.C. by Buddha. Buddha, which means enlightened one, was the name given to Gautama Siddhartha by his followers. Buddhism has millions of followers.

Buddy, Bishop Charles Francis: (Oct. 4, 1887 to March 6, 1966) Use Bishop Charles Francis Buddy on first reference and Bishop Buddy on second reference. Bishop Charles Francis Buddy and Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill are the founders of the University of San Diego. Bishop Buddy founded the San Diego College for Men and the School of Law. Mother Hill founded the San Diego College for Women. The institutions merged in 1972 to become what is now the University of San Diego.

buildings, structures and other campus sites: Use the proper building names on first reference in all formal university publications. It is respectful of the heritage for which, or the individuals for whom, buildings are named. See individual building entries for additional information on how to refer to each. Here are the formal names of the most referenced campus buildings and sites:

  • Alcalá Vista Apartments; Avilá (also see Alcalá Park West);
  • Barcelona (also see Alcalá Park West);
  • Bert's Bistro;
  • The Bob and Betty Beyster Institute for Nursing Research, Advanced Practice and Simulation;
  • Camino Hall;
  • Coronado (also see Alcalá Park West);
  • Durango (also see Alcalá Park West);
  • east kiosk;
  • Casa Maria;
  • Copley Library;
  • Degheri Alumni Center;
  • Facilities Management Complex;
  • Founders Chapel;
  • Founders Hall;
  • Guadalupe Hall;
  • Hahn School of Nursing and Health Science;
  • Hahn University Center;
  • Hughes Administration Center;
  • The Immaculata;
  • Jenny Craig Pavilion;
  • Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice;
  • La Gran Terraza;
  • La Paloma;
  • Loma Hall;
  • Maher Hall;
  • Manchester Family Child Development Center;
  • Manchester Hall;
  • Manchester Village Apartments;
  • Mission Crossroads;
  • Mother Rosalie Hill Hall;
  • Olin Hall;
  • Pardee Legal Research Center;
  • Pavilion Dining;
  • Sacred Heart Hall;
  • Serra Hall;
  • Donald P. Shiley Center for Science and Technology;
  • Shiley Theatre;
  • Sports Center;
  • St. Francis Center for Priestly Formation;
  • Student Life Pavilion;
  • Torero Store;
  • University Copy;
  • University Terrace Apartments;
  • Warren Hall;
  • west kiosk;
  • West Parking Structure.

bullfight, bullfighter, bullfighting: All single words.

bullpen: One word for the place where baseball pitchers warm up and for a pen that holds cattle.

bus, buses: Transportation vehicles. The verb forms are bus, bused, busing.

C

Camino Hall: Capitalize. This building is a mirror image of Founders Hall. The two buildings are connected and often are referred to together. In those cases, however, it is preferable to say Camino Hall and Founders Hall, not Camino-Founders. Do not refer to the building simply as Camino.

campus-wide: Two words. Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. (Examples: The final step in the campus-wide process will take place this month.)

capitalization: In general, avoid unnecessary capitalization.

Casa de Alcalá: This is the name for the president's residence. Lowercase the de. Not The Casa de Alcalá. Do not refer to the residence simply as the casa.

Casa de la Paz: This is a building behind the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice. Lowercase the de la.

Casa Maria: Capitalize.

Catholic: Uppercase when referring to the denomination. Lowercase when it means general or universal, meanings derived from a similar word in Greek.

cents: Use numerals for amounts less than a dollar and spell out the word cents (Examples: 5 cents, 12 cents). Use the $ sign and a decimal system for larger amounts (Examples: $1.05, $3.50, $10.99). For whole dollar amounts do not use the decimal system (Examples: $1, $10, $100). See the dollar entry for additional information.

Changemaker: One word. Uppercase. If being used to modify a common noun to a proper noun, capitalize both words to form the proper noun. (Example: Some of the Changemaker students were Changemaker Engineers.)

chapters: Capitalize chapter when used with a numeral in a reference to a section of a book or legal code. Always use with a numeral, not the number spelled out. (Examples: The professor asked the students to read Chapter 2. The professor was reading ahead in Chapter 20.)

chat room: Lowercase. Two words.

Christmas Day: Capitalize Day. See the eve entry for additional information.

church: Capitalize as part of the formal name of a building, a congregation or a denomination. Lowercase in phrases where church is used in an institutional sense, in plural uses where two formal names are combined or in other uses. (Examples of uppercase: St. Mary's Church; the Roman Catholic Church. Examples of lowercase: the separation of church and state; the church teaches that; the event was sponsored by Trinity and St. Mary's churches; the Catholic and Episcopal churches.)

class years and degrees: List the graduation years and academic degrees for alumni in the following ways:

  • Single degree:
    • David Jones '90 (BA)
    • Mary (Daly) Smith '90 (MEd)
  • Multiple degrees:
    • David Jones '90 (BA), '92 (MEd)
    • Mary (Daly) Smith '90 (BA), '92 (MEd)
  • Married couples who are alumni:
    • John Smith '85 and Mary Smith (only John is an alumnus)
    • John Smith '85 and Mary Smith '87 (both are alumni)
    • An alternate option would be John '85 and Mary '87 Smith

Note: The apostrophe [ ' ] — not the open, single quotation mark [ ‘ ] — is used before the year to indicate that numbers have been omitted.

college: Capitalize when part of a proper name. (Example: The College of Arts and Sciences.) Lowercase when used separate from the formal name. (Example: The University of San Diego includes one college and five schools.)

co-curricular/co-curriculum: Hyphenate.

College of Arts and Sciences: Capitalize when part of a proper name. Notice that the word and is spelled out and is lowercase. Using an ampersand (&) is incorrect. Notice that Sciences is plural.

comma: In a series, use commas to separate elements in a series, but do not put a comma before the conjunction in a simple series (Examples: The flag is red, white and blue. He would nominate Tom, Dick or Harry.)

committee: Do not abbreviate. Capitalize only when part of a formal name. (Examples: The director set up the Policies and Procedures Committee. The committee is charged with reviewing the company's policies and procedures.)

composition titles: In general, all of the following composition titles should be in italics: book titles, computer game titles, movie titles, opera titles, play titles, album titles, poem titles, radio and television program titles, and the titles of lectures, speeches and works of art, including exhibitions and performances.

Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions of four or more letters. Capitalize an article — the, a, an — or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title.

Exceptions: These rules do not apply to the Bible and books that are primarily catalogs of reference material. In addition to catalogs, this category includes almanacs, directories, dictionaries, encyclopedias, gazetteers, handbooks and similar publications.

In headline text, do not use italics or quotation marks.

Copley Library: Capitalize.

course titles, class titles: Capitalize formal titles. (Examples: He enrolled in History 201 and in Political Science 201 this semester.) Lowercase general uses. (Example: He is taking history and political science classes this semester.)

Coronado: This is the name of what had been known as the Alcalá Park West 2 building, near the west entrance to campus.

course titles, class titles: Capitalize formal titles. (Examples: He enrolled in History 201 and in Political Science 201 this semester.) Lowercase general uses. No italics, quotation marks, bolding or other formatting is necessary when referring to a course title. (Example: He is taking history and political science classes this semester.)

coursework: One word.

courtroom: One word.

Cunningham Field: Cunningham Field is the name of the baseball field at Fowler Park, USD's baseball stadium. References that include both names should be listed as Cunningham Field at Fowler Park. See the Fowler Park entry for additional information.

cyberspace: Lowercase. One word.

D

data: A plural noun, it normally takes plural verbs and pronouns. The singular form is datum.

database: One word.

data processing: Two words as a noun and adjective. Do not hyphenate the adjective.

days of the week: Capitalize them and spell out. Do not abbreviate. With the exception of invitations, it is preferable that days of the week not be listed in general information; only the time, date and location are needed. (Example: The event will take place at 7 p.m., Feb. 17, at the Jenny Craig Pavilion.) See the invitations entry for additional information.

dean: Capitalize only when used as a formal title before a name (Examples: Dean John Jones. Deans John Jones and Jane Smith.) Lowercase when the title follows a name or is used in a general sense. (The dean is working on a proposal. John Jones, dean of the college.)

dean's list: Lowercase in all uses. (Examples: He is on the dean's list. She is a dean's list student.)

decision making, decision-making: Two words. Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. (Examples: The final step in the decision-making process will take place this month. He took a course in ethical decision making.)

Degheri Alumni Center: Use Degheri Alumni Center on the first reference. On second reference, the alumni center (all lowercase) is acceptable. Not the Alumni Center. Not The Alumni Center. Do not refer to the building simply as Degheri.

deities: Capitalize the names of monotheistic deities. (Examples: God, the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Redeemer.) Capitalize the pronouns referring to the deity: He, Him, His, Thee, Thou, Thy. Capitalize Allah, lowercase the pronouns referring to him. Lowercase gods in referring to deities of polytheistic religions. Capitalize the proper names of pagan and mythological gods and goddesses (Examples: Neptune, Thor, Venus). Lowercase words such as god-awful, godlike, godsend.

departments: This entry is similar to the program entry. Capitalize only when referring to the formal name of a department. Do not abbreviate. (Example: Department of History). Use lowercase for general references or when using only a portion of the formal name of the department (Examples: the history department, the chemistry department). See the program entry for additional information.

dining: The proper listings for dining options on campus are Aromas, Bert's Bistro, Frank's Lounge, La Gran Terraza, La Paloma, Pavilion Dining and Tu Mercado.

diocese: Capitalize only as part of a proper name. Lowercase when used in a general sense.

director, program director: This style is similar to the guidelines discussed in the titles entry. Director should be lowercase, except when used as part of a formal title directly before a person's name. (Examples: The event featured Systems Institute Director John Smith. John Smith, director of Systems Institute, spoke at the event.) Likewise, program director should be lowercase, except when used as part of a formal title directly before a person's name. (Examples: The event featured Systems Institute Program Director John Smith. John Smith, program director of Systems Institute, spoke at the event.)

doctor, Dr.: When referencing people who hold doctorate degrees or honorary doctorate degrees, list their name and doctorate degree on first reference (Example: Jane Smith, PhD). In subsequent references, it is acceptable to list the Dr. abbreviation before the person's last name (Example: Dr. Smith will be lecturing on the evolution of U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East.) See the PhD entry or the EdD entry for additional information.

dollars: Always lowercase. Use numerals and the $ in all except casual references or amounts without a figure. (Examples: The book cost $4. Dad, please give me a dollar. The dollars are flowing overseas.) For specified amounts, the word takes a singular verb. (Example: He said $500,000 is what they want.) For amounts less than $1 million use the following constructions — $4, $25, $535, $1,126, and $650,000. For amounts of more than $1 million, use the $ and numerals up to two decimal places and spell out million or billion. Do not link the numerals and the words with a hyphen. (Examples: He is worth exactly $4,351,242. He is worth $4.35 million. He proposed a $300 billion budget.) See the cents entry or the millions, billions entry for additional information.

domain name: Lowercase. Two words.

domain names, website addresses, URL listings: Omit the http:// that generally precedes website addresses. However, if a site address does not begin with www., the http:// is necessary. If space is a consideration, it is permissible to omit the www prefix, so long as the URL is tested and still works without it. Remove the underline and blue font formatting that automatically appears in some word processing programs. Remove the slash that generally appears at the end of a website. (Right: www.sandiego.edu; Wrong: http://www.sandiego.edu/). Splitting the name of a long web address between two lines should be avoided by making slight adjustments in kerning, the space between letters. However, if adjusting kerning isn't possible or doesn't work and a long web address must be divided between lines, break the address before a slash or a dot and start the next line with the slash or the dot and the rest of the address so that there is no confusion about whether the text on the second line is part of the web address.

Donald P. Shiley Center for Science and Technology: Use the full name, Donald P. Shiley Center for Science and Technology, on first reference. This is one of the few cases where the full name of the donor for whom the building is named is used. The building may be referred to as the Shiley Center for Science and Technology, or simply as the science center, on second reference. Do not refer to the building as the Shiley Science Center or the Shiley Center.

dorm: The term residence hall is preferred.

dot-com: Lowercase. Hyphenated. Acceptable as an informal adjective describing companies that do business mainly on the Internet.

download: One word. downtown: One word.

dpi: Lowercase no periods. Acceptable acronym for dots per inch, a measure of print and screen resolution.

Dr., doctor: When referencing people who hold doctorate degrees or honorary doctorate degrees, list their name and doctorate degree on first reference (Example: Jane Smith, PhD). In subsequent references, it is acceptable to list the Dr. abbreviation before the person's last name (Example: Dr. Smith will be lecturing on the evolution of U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East.) See the PhD entry or the EdD entry for additional information.

DSL: Acronym for digital subscriber line. Acceptable on all references. No periods.

Durango: This is the name of what had been known as the Alcalá Park West 4 building, near the west entrance to campus.

E

earth: Generally lowercase. (Examples: She is down to earth. He hopes to move heaven and earth.) Capitalize when used as the proper name of our planet. (Examples: How does that theory apply to Mars, Jupiter and Earth? The astronauts returned to Earth.)

east entrance: Lowercase.

Easter: Uppercase.

east kiosk: Lowercase.

East Parking Structure: Capitalize.

EdD: When referencing people who hold doctorate degrees or honorary doctorate degrees, list their name and doctorate degree on first reference. The degree should be set off by commas if it comes in the middle of a sentence. (Example: John Jones, EdD, was named as president of the university.) In subsequent references, it is acceptable to list the Dr. abbreviation before the person's last name. See the doctor entry for additional information.

EdDs: Plural format.

ellipsis: Use to indicate an omission, pause or continuation. Place a space on either side of the ellipsis. (Example: There were four members of the academy ... at the conference.)

email: Not hyphenated. Lowercase when used in a sentence. Uppercase when used to refer to a point of contact.

email addresses: When listing University of San Diego email addresses, do not capitalize. University emails are not case sensitive and capitalization in the sandiego.edu implies that they are and could confuse the audience. Only capitalize other email addresses if they are case sensitive.

em dash (—): Use this long dash (rather than a hyphen, double hyphen or a short dash, which is called an en dash), to add emphasis, avoid the confusion of commas or to identify the source of a quote. On a PC, simultaneously press alt, control and the minus key on your number pad. On a Macintosh, press the shift, option and hyphen keys simultaneously. Place one space on either side of the em dash. (Examples: Our program — one of the top five in the nation — recruits the best students throughout the country.) See the en dash entry for additional information.

emeritus: This word often is added to formal titles to denote that individuals who have retired retain their rank or title. When used, place it after the formal title, in keeping with academic institutions. Capitalize when used before a person's name. (Example: Professor Emeritus John Jones.) Lowercase when it follows a person's name or stands alone. (Example: John Jones, professor emeritus of history.)

emigrate, immigrate: One who leaves a country emigrates from it. One who comes into a country immigrates. The same principle holds for emigrant and immigrant.

en dash (–): This short dash is appropriate for separating course numbers from course names. (Example: ENGL 121 – Composition and Literature.) On a PC, simultaneously press control and the minus key on your number pad. On a Macintosh, press the option and hyphen keys simultaneously. Place one space on either side of the en dash. When writing standard text, however, the longer dash, known as an em dash (—), is usually most appropriate. See the em dash entry for additional information.

Envisioning 2024: The name of the university's new strategic plan, Envisioning 2024, should be italicized in print and online.

EPS: Capitalize. No periods. Acronym for encapsulated post script, a common graphics file format.

eve: Capitalize when used after the name of a holiday. Lowercase in other general references (Examples: Christmas Eve, New Year's Eve, The eve of Christmas).

ext., extension: When listing university phone numbers and extensions, use the abbreviation ext. Do not spell out. Do not use X or x. Precede with a comma. (Right: (619) 260-4600, ext. 1111; Wrong: (619) 260-4600 x1111.) If the phone number and extension are part of a sentence that continues, a comma should precede and follow the extension. (Example: Call (619) 260-4600, ext. 1111, for show times and ticket prices.) Listing extensions alone should be done only with publications that are distributed internally. See the telephone numbers entry for additional information.

F

faculty: Faculty refers to the entire instructional staff. It takes a singular verb. Its plural is faculties. When referring to an individual, use the phrase "faculty member." When referring to a group of individuals numbering fewer than the entire faculty, use the phrase "faculty members." See the faculty member entry for additional information.

faculty member: Refers to an individual who is a member of an institution or academic unit's instructional staff. Use "faculty members" when referring to a group of individuals numbering of less than the entire faculty. See the faculty entry for additional information.

false titles: Often derived from occupational titles or other labels. Always lowercase. See the titles entry for additional information.

FAQs, frequently asked questions: Spell out. Do not use the acronym.

Father: Father is the more common and informal title used when referring to a priest and is used in most instances at University of San Diego. Father is always capitalized and spelled out when used as a title before the name of a priest. The title typically doesn't stand alone, separate from a priest's name. (Example: Father John Smith is teaching three theology classes this semester. Father John Smith on first reference and Father Smith on subsequent references.)

fewer, less: In general, user fewer for individual items, less for bulk or quantity. Wrong: The trend is toward more machines and less people. (People, in this sense refers to individuals.) Wrong: She was fewer than 60 years old. (Years in this sense refers to a period of time, not individual years. Right: Fewer than 10 applicants called (individuals). Right: I had less than 50 $1 bills in my pocket (individual items). See the less, fewer entry for additional information.

financial aid: The phrase financial assistance is preferred.

first-year: This term is preferred over "freshman."

flyer: This is the preferred term when referring to printed pieces, rather than "flier."

foreign words or phrases: Italics are used for foreign words or phrases in a foreign language if they are likely to be unfamiliar to readers. If a foreign word or phrase is not listed in Webster's New World College Dictionary, italicize it.

founders: Bishop Charles Francis Buddy and Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill are the founders of the University of San Diego. Bishop Buddy founded the San Diego College for Men and the School of Law. Mother Hill founded the San Diego College for Women. The institutions merged in 1972 to become what is now the University of San Diego.

Founders Chapel: Capitalize. The word Founders is plural. No apostrophe in Founders.

Founders Hall: Capitalize. The word Founders is plural. There is no apostrophe in Founders. This building is a mirror image of Camino Hall. The two buildings are connected and often are referred to together. In those cases, however, it is preferable to say Camino Hall and Founders Hall, not Camino-Founders. Do not refer to the building simply as Founders.

Fowler Park: Fowler Park is the name of USD's baseball stadium. Cunningham Field is the name of the field at Fowler Park. References that include both names should be listed as Cunningham Field at Fowler Park. See the Cunningham Field entry for additional information.

fractions: Spell out and hyphenate amounts that are less than one (Example: two-thirds, four-fifths, seven- sixteenths). Use figures for precise amounts larger than one, converting to decimals whenever practical. (Example: 1.5 or 3.25).

frequently asked questions, FAQs: Spell out. Do not use the acronym.

Freshman, freshmen: Do not use. First-year is preferred.

Friday: Capitalize and spell out. Do not abbreviate. See the days of the week entry for additional information.

full time, full-time: Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. (Examples: He works full time. She has a full-time job.)

fundraising, fundraiser: One word in all cases.

G

galleries: The proper listing for galleries on campus are David W. May American Indian Gallery, Fine Art Galleries, Hoehn Family Galleries, Hoehn Print Study Room, Visual Art Center.

gardens and plazas: USD is justifiably renowned for the beauty of its campus. Notable gardens and plazas are as follows: Bishop Leo T. Maher Garden (located in the courtyard behind Maher Hall); Camino/Founders Patio (located between Camino and Founders Halls); Colachis Plaza (located in front of The Immaculata); Eagan Plaza (located in front of the Jenny Craig Pavilion); the Garden of the Moon (located to the left of the front of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice); the Garden of the Sea (located behind the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice); the Garden of the Sky (located in front of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice); the Plaza Mayor (located outside the entrance to Pavilion Dining in the Student Life Pavilion); the Plaza Menor (located in front of the Hahn University Center); the Plaza de San Diego (located in front of Maher Hall); Strata Plaza (located behind the Shiley Center for Science and Technology); and Tecolote Memorial Garden (located across Alcalá Park Way between the Hahn University Center and Maher Hall).

GIF: Capitalize. No periods. Acronym for graphic interchange format, which allows the file size of an image to be reduced without degrading the visual quality.

go to, website navigation: When referring readers to a website, the phrase go to is preferred over visit or log on to. Give readers additional navigation tips by saying click on. (Example: For more information about the program, go to www.sandiego.edu/alumni and click on homecoming.)

GPA: Acceptable in all references for grade-point average.

grade, grader: Hyphenate the noun forms. Spell out first through ninth, use ordinals for 10th and above (Examples: first-grader, second-grader, 10th-grader). Hyphenate the adjective forms. Spell out first through ninth, use ordinals for 10th and above (Examples: a fourth-grade pupil, a 12th-grade student).

grassroots: One word. groundskeeper: One word, no hyphen.

group: Takes singular verbs and pronouns. (Example: The group is reviewing its position.)

Guadalupe, Guadeloupe: Guadalupe is in Mexico. Guadeloupe is in the West Indies.

Guadalupe Hall: Capitalize. Do not refer to the building simply as Guadalupe.

H

Hahn School of Nursing and Health Science: Capitalize when part of a proper name. Lowercase when used separate from or with less than the complete and formal name. Capitalizing School of Nursing, without the words Hahn or and Health Science, is incorrect. (Examples: The Hahn School of Nursing and Health Science is well-respected. The student applied to the school of nursing. The student applied to the nursing school.) Notice the word and is spelled out and is lowercase. Using an ampersand (&) is incorrect. Notice Science is singular, not plural. When referring to the building, use the full name on first reference. The school of nursing (all lowercase) may be used on second reference. Do not refer to the building or the school simply as Hahn.

Hahn University Center: Use Hahn University Center on first reference. The university center (lowercase) or the acronym UC (no periods) may be used on second reference.

Hanukkah: The Jewish Festival of Lights.

Harris, president, James T.: The university's president should be referred to as James T. Harris III. In signatures to official correspondence, he should be referred to as James T. Harris III, DEd.

He, Him, His, Thee, Thou: Capitalize the personal pronouns that refer to the deity.

health care: Two words.

heaven: Lowercase.

hell: Lowercase.

high-tech: Two words, hyphenated.

Hill, Mother Rosalie Clifton: (March 13, 1879 to Dec. 12, 1964) Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill on first reference and Mother Hill on second reference. Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill and Bishop Charles Francis Buddy are the founders of the University of San Diego. Bishop Buddy founded the San Diego College for Men and the School of Law. Mother Hill founded the San Diego College for Women. The institutions merged in 1972 to become what is now the University of San Diego.

Holy Communion: Capitalize. See the sacraments entry for additional information.

Holy Father: The preferred form is to use the pope or the pontiff, or to give the individual's name. Use Holy Father only in direct quotations or where a particular literary effect is desired.

Holy Spirit: Capitalize. This term is preferred over Holy Ghost.

Holy Week: Capitalize. Refers to the week before Easter.

home page: Two words. Lowercase. Describes the front page of a particular website.

hometown: One word, no hyphen.

honorary degrees: All references to honorary degrees should specify that the degree is indeed honorary. Do not use Dr. before the name of an individual with an honorary doctorate.

http://: Delete the acronym, slashes and colon that typically precede most websites. However, if a site address does not begin with www., the http:// is necessary. See the entry for URL listings, website addresses and domain names for additional information.

Hughes Administration Center: Capitalize. Do not refer to the building simply as Hughes or Hughes Administration.

I

The Immaculata: This is the signature building on campus. It is one of the rare instances where the word The is capitalized in all references to the building or the church. Not the Immaculata.

institute: See the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice entry or the Trans-Border Institute entry for additional information.

Internet: Capitalize. One word, no hyphen.

intramural: One word, no hyphen.

invitations: Invitations for university events should contain the following information: time, date and location. In addition, invitations are the only university collateral materials where days of the week may be included and where months of the year are not abbreviated. See the days of the week or the months entries for additional information.

IQ: Acceptable in all references for intelligence quotient.

it's, its: It's is a contraction for it is or it has. (Example: It's up to you. It's been a long time.) Its is a possessive. (Example: The company lost its assets.)

J

jargon: The special vocabulary of a particular class or occupational group. In general, avoid jargon. When it is appropriate, in special context, include an explanation of any words likely to be unfamiliar to most readers.

James T. Harris: The university's president should be referred to as James T. Harris III. In signatures to official correspondence, he should be referred to as James T. Harris III, DEd.

Jenny Craig Pavilion: Use Jenny Craig Pavilion on first reference. The acronym JCP is acceptable on second reference.

Jesus, Jesus Christ: Either reference is acceptable. Personal pronouns referring to him — He, Him, His, Thee and Thou — are capitalized. Capitalize the names of major events in the life of Jesus Christ in references that do not bear his name. (Examples: the Last Supper, the Crucifixion, the Resurrection and the Ascension.) But lowercase when the words are used with his name (Examples: The ascension of Jesus into heaven took place ... ). Apply the same principles also in the events of his mother. See the Mary, Virgin Mary entry for additional information.

Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice: Use the full name, Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice on first reference when referring to the institute, or the building in which the institute (one component of the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies) is located. Using an ampersand (&) is incorrect. On second reference either the institute (lowercase) or the acronym IPJ is acceptable. Do not use the terms the Institute, or the KIPJ in any marketing materials. Note that no campus entity is authorized to use an ampersand. All University of San Diego colleges, schools, centers, institutes, programs or departments must spell out the word "and" in their proper name in print, on the web and in other references. See the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies entry for additional information.

Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies: Spell out in full on first reference. Notice using an ampersand (&) is incorrect. On subsequent references the school may be listed as the Kroc School. The Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice — which is the name of the institute, as well as the building in which the institute is located — is a component of the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies. See the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice entry for additional information.

JPEG, JPG: Capitalize. No periods. Acronym for joint photographic experts group, a common type of image compression mechanisms used on the web.

junior (Jr.): Abbreviate as Jr. only with full names of people. Do not precede with a comma (Example: John Smith Jr.). The notation II or 2nd may be used if it is the individual's preference. However, it is not necessarily the equivalent of junior because they could be used by a grandson, nephew or other relative. If necessary to distinguish between a father and son in second reference, use the elder Smith or the younger Smith.

K

kids: Use children unless you are referring to goats, or if the use of kids as an informal reference is appropriate in the context.

kindergarten: Lowercase in most references. Do not shorten to kinder. Avoid shortening to K. Kindergarten through 12th grade is preferable to K-12.

Koran: The sacred book of Islam.

Kroc, Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice: Use the full name, Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice on first reference when referring to the institute, or the building in which the institute (one component of the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies) is located. Using an ampersand (&) is incorrect. On second reference either the institute (lowercase) or the acronym IPJ is acceptable. Do not use the terms the Institute, or the KIPJ in any marketing materials. See the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies entry for additional information.

L

languages: Capitalize the proper names of languages and dialects (Examples: Aramaic, Cajun, English, Spanish, Serbo-Croatian, Yiddish).

Last Supper: Capitalize.

Leading Change: The full name of the comprehensive campaign, Leading Change: The Campaign for USD, should be italicized in print and online, as should shortened versions, such as Leading Change and the Leading Change Campaign.

lecture or speech titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Put quotation marks around the title. See the bibliography entry for additional information.

Lent: Capitalize.

less, fewer: In general, user fewer for individual items, less for bulk or quantity. Wrong: The trend is toward more machines and less people. (People, in this sense refers to individuals.) Wrong: She was fewer than 60 years old. (Years in this sense refers to a period of time, not individual years.) Right: Fewer than 10 applicants called (individuals). Right: I had less than 50 $1 bills in my pocket (individual items). See the fewer, less entry for additional information.

login, logon, logoff: Uses these references only as nouns. The phrases log on and log off (two words) may be used as verbs, when literally instructing a reader to go through the official process of logging on or off to a computer or a website. However, these verbs should be avoided when referring people to a website. When referring people to a website use the term go to and, for further navigation use the term click on. (Example: For more information, go to www.sandiego.edu/alumni and click on homecoming.) See the website navigation entry or the go to entry for additional information.

Loma Hall: Capitalize. Do not refer to the building simply as Loma.

lowercase: One word — as a noun, verb and adjective.

LRC, Pardee Legal Research Center: Refer to the building as Pardee Legal Research Center on first reference. It may be referred to as the research center on second reference. The acronym LRC also is acceptable on second reference.

M

magazine titles: Capitalize the initial letters of the name. Italicize. Lowercase the word magazine unless it is part of the publication's formal title. (Example: The students read an article in Time magazine.) Verify the official name of the magazine and avoid capitalizing and italicizing the word magazine if it is unnecessary. (Examples: Time magazine, but USD Magazine.)

Maher Hall: Capitalize. Do not refer to the building simply as Maher.

majors: Academic majors are lowercase unless they include a proper name. (Examples: Jane Smith, who plans to major in history, or John Jones, a senior who majors in math; but Spanish major Jane Smith, or John Jones, a senior, who majors in English.)

Manchester Family Child Development Center: Refer to the center as the Manchester Family Child Development Center on first reference. The phrase child development center is acceptable on second reference. Do not refer to it as the Manchester Child Development Center or the Manchester Development Center. Do not refer to the center or the building simply as Manchester.

Manchester Village: Refer to the residence hall as Manchester Village on first reference. Do not refer to it simply as Manchester or as the Village.

Mary, Virgin Mary: Capitalize the names of major events that happened in the life of Mary, the mother of Jesus, in references that do not bear her name. (Examples: He cited the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception and the Assumption.) Use lowercase when the words are used with her name. (Example: She referred to the assumption of Mary.) Same rules apply for Jesus. See the Jesus, Jesus Christ entry for additional information.

Mass: Mass is celebrated, not said. Always capitalize when referring to the ceremony.

Master of Arts, Master of Science: A master's degree or a master's is acceptable in any reference. Use the abbreviations MA or MS when the preferred form is cumbersome. Academic abbreviations should not include periods. The degree should be set off by commas when used in the middle of a sentence. (Example: Jane Smith, MA, was the keynote speaker.) On occasion it may also be appropriate to use formal names of degrees. (Examples: John Smith received a Master of Arts in history. Jane Jones received a Master of Science in chemistry.) See the academic degrees entry for additional information.

mean, median, average, norm: Average refers to the result obtained by dividing a sum of the number of quantities added together. (Example: The average of 7, 9 and 17 is calculated this way: 7+9+17=33÷3=11. The average is 11.) Mean, in its sense used in arithmetic and statistics, is an average and is determined by adding the series of numbers and dividing the sum by the number of cases. (Example: The mean temperature of five days with temperatures of 67, 62, 68, 69 and 64 is 66.) Median is the middle number of points in a series arranged in order of size. (Example: The median grade in the group of 50, 55, 85, 88 and 92 is 85. The average is 74.) Norm implies the standard of average performance for a given group. (Example: The child was below the norm for his age in reading comprehension.)

median, mean, average, norm: Average refers to the result obtained by dividing a sum of the number of quantities added together. (Example: The average of 7, 9 and 17 is calculated this way: 7+9+17=33÷3=11. The average is 11.) Mean, in its sense used in arithmetic and statistics, is an average and is determined by adding the series of numbers and dividing the sum by the number of cases. (Example: The mean temperature of five days with temperatures of 67, 62, 68, 69 and 64 is 66.) Median is the middle number of points in a series arranged in order of size. (Example: The median grade in the group of 50, 55, 85, 88 and 92 is 85. The average is 74.) Norm implies the standard of average performance for a given group. (Example: The child was below the norm for his age in reading comprehension.)

messiah: Capitalize in religious uses. Lowercase when used generically to mean a liberator.

middle class, middle-class: Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. (Examples: He is a member of the middle class. She has middle-class values.)

midnight: Lowercase. Do not put a 12 in front of it. See the noon entry or the times entry for additional information.

mile: Use figures for amounts under 10 in dimensions, formulas and speeds. (Examples: 5 miles by 4 miles. The car slowed to 7 mph. The new model gets 4 miles more per gallon.) Spell out below 10 in distances. (Example: He drove four miles.)

miles per hour, mph: The abbreviation mph (no periods) is acceptable in all references.

military-connected students: This is the inclusive term for the population we serve. Includes active duty, veterans and dependents of veterans.

military and veterans programs: The overall collection of efforts, events and resources serving military- connected students.

military titles: Capitalize a military rank when used as a formal title before an individual's name. On first reference use the appropriate title before the full name of a member of the military. In subsequent references do not continue using the title before a name; use only the person's last name. Spell out and lowercase a title when it is used in a general sense or substituted for a person's name. (Example: An aide said the general would review the troops.)

Listed here are abbreviations of titles to be used before a name. For abbreviations for titles in other branches of the military, refer to The Associated Press Stylebook.

  • Admiral: Adm.
  • Vice Admiral: Vice Adm.
  • Rear Admiral Upper Half: Rear Adm.
  • Rear Admiral Lower Half: Rear Adm.
  • Captain: Capt.
  • Commander: Cmdr.
  • Lieutenant Commander: Lt. Cmdr.
  • Lieutenant: Lt.
  • Lieutenant Junior Grade: Lt. j.g.
  • Ensign: Ensign
  • Petty Officer First Class: Petty Officer 1st Class
  • Petty Officer Second Class: Petty Officer 2nd Class
  • Petty Officer Third Class: Petty Officer 3rd Class

millions, billions: Use figures with the words million or billion in all except casual uses. (Examples: The nation has 1 million citizens. I need $7 billion. I'd like to make a billion dollars.) Decimal points are preferred over fractions. Do not go beyond two decimal points. (Examples: 7.38 million people. $2.56 billion.) Do not mix millions and billions in the same figure (Right: 2.6 billion. Wrong: 2 billion, 600 million.) Do not drop the word million or billion when listing a range. (Right: He is worth $2 million to $4 million. Wrong: He is worth $2 to $4 million — unless you really mean $2.)

Mission Crossroads: Refer to the collection of residence halls as Mission Crossroads on all references.

Monday: Capitalize and spell out. Do not abbreviate. See the days of the week entry for additional information.

monsignor: Always capitalize and spell out the title when it immediately precedes a person's name. Do not capitalize if the reference follows a person's name. Do not use the abbreviation Msgr. (Examples: Monsignor Joseph Jones is teaching three theology classes this semester; Joseph Jones, who received the title monsignor in 1975, is teaching three theology classes this semester. Monsignor Joseph Jones on first reference and Monsignor Jones on subsequent references.)

months: Months are spelled out when they stand alone or are listed with only a year. When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do not separate the year with comma. When used with a specific date, abbreviate January, February and August through December. Spell out March, April, May, June and July. (Examples: The event takes place in September. The event takes place in September 2018. The event takes place Sept. 20, 2018. The event was held in May 2002. The event was held on May 18, 2002.) The exception to this rule is when referring to a month in a formal invitation. In formal invitations for university events all months of the year are to be spelled out and not abbreviated. See the invitations entry for additional information.

Mother: When referring to a woman who heads a group of nuns, always spell out and capitalize Mother before a name. (Examples: Mother Agnes Rita in all references if the nun uses only a religious name; Mother Clare Torpy on first reference if she uses a surname and Mother Torpy on subsequent references.)

Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill: (March 13, 1879 to Dec. 12, 1964) Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill on first reference and Mother Hill on second reference. Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill and Bishop Charles Francis Buddy are the founders of the University of San Diego. Bishop Buddy founded the San Diego College for Men and the School of Law. Mother Hill founded the San Diego College for Women. The institutions merged in 1972 to become what is now the University of San Diego.

Mother Rosalie Hill Hall: Capitalize. Use the full name, Mother Rosalie Hill Hall on first reference. On second reference, Hill Hall is acceptable. Do not use the terms Rosalie Hill Hall or Mother Hill Hall.

movie titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Italicize.

mph, miles per hour: The abbreviation mph (no periods) is acceptable in all references.

Mulvaney Center: The full name is the Karen and Tom Mulvaney Center for Community, Awareness and Social Action. While the acronym CASA is acceptable, it is preferable to use the Mulvaney Center upon second reference. (Note: The center was formerly known as the Center for Community-Service Learning.)

Muslims: The preferred term to describe adherents of Islam.

N

nationwide: One word.

naval, navel: Naval pertains to the Navy. A navel is a bellybutton. A navel orange is a seedless orange.

navy: Capitalize when referring to the U.S. Forces (Examples: the U.S. Navy, the Navy, Navy regulations). Do not use the abbreviation USN. Lowercase when referring to the naval forces of other nations. See the military titles entry for additional information.

newspaper titles: Newspaper titles should be in italics, without quotes. Capitalize the word the in a newspaper's name if that is the way the publication prefers to be known.

New Testament: Capitalize. See the Bible entry for additional information.

Nobel Prize, Nobel Prizes: Capitalize.

nobody: One word.

No., number: Use the abbreviation No. for number in conjunction with a figure to indicate a position or a rank (Examples: No. 1 man, No. 3 choice).

noon: Lowercase. Do not precede it with the number 12. See the midnight entry or the times entry for additional information.

no one: Two words.

norm, mean, median, average: Average refers to the result obtained by dividing a sum of the number of quantities added together. (Example: The average of 7, 9 and 17 is calculated this way: 7+9+17=33÷3=11. The average is 11.) Mean, in its sense used in arithmetic and statistics, is an average and is determined by adding the series of numbers and dividing the sum by the number of cases. (Example: The mean temperature of five days with temperatures of 67, 62, 68, 69 and 64 is 66.) Median is the middle number of points in a series arranged in order of size. (Example: The median grade in the group of 50, 55, 85, 88 and 92 is 85. The average is 74.) Norm implies the standard of average performance for a given group. (Example: The child was below the norm for his age in reading comprehension.)

Northern California: Capitalize.

number, No.: Use the abbreviation No. for number in conjunction with a figure to indicate a position or a rank (Examples: No. 1 man, No. 3 choice).

numbers: Spell out numbers zero through nine. (Example: She purchased four books for the class.) Use numerals for 10 through 999,999. Use a comma in numbers above 999 (He registered for 15 units. There are more than 7,000 students at the university). Express numbers larger than that with a combination of numerals and words. (Example: There are more than 3.5 million residents in the city.) Spell out first through ninth, starting with 10th use figures when they indicate sequence in time or location. (Examples first base, the First Amendment, he was first in line. He was 10th in line.) Use 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. when the sequence has been assigned in forming names are geographic, military or political designations (Examples: 1st Ward, 7th Fleet, and 1st Sgt.). See the millions, billions entry for additional information.

nun, Sister: Always spell out and capitalize Sister before a name. (Examples: Sister Agnes Rita in all references if the nun uses only a religious name; Sister Clare Torpy on first reference if she uses a surname and Sister Torpy on subsequent references.)

O

offices: Capitalize only when referring to the formal name of an office. (Example: Office of Parent Relations). Use lowercase for general references or when using only a portion of the formal name of the office. (Example: The parent relations office is in the Degheri Alumni Center. Send applications to the alumni relations office.)

off of: The of is not necessary. (Right: He fell off the bed. Wrong: Not he fell off of the bed.)

OK, OK'd, OK'ing, OKs: Do not use okay.

The Old Globe and University of San Diego Shiley Graduate Theatre Program: This is the correct full name of USD's MFA in Dramatic Arts program. It is permissible to shorten it to the Shiley Graduate Theatre Program on second reference.

Old Testament: Capitalize. See the Bible entry for additional information.

Olin Hall: Capitalize. Do not refer to the building simply as Olin.

Operation: Capitalize when using this word as part of the name of a formal military operation. (Example: Operation Desert Shield.)

ordinals: Spell out first through ninth, starting with 10th. Use figures when they indicate sequence in time or location. (Examples: first base, the First Amendment, he was first in line. He was 10th in line.) Use 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, etc. when the sequence has been assigned in forming names are geographic, military or political designations (Examples: 1st Ward, 7th Fleet, and 1st Sgt.).

overall: One word.

P

page numbers: Use figures and capitalize page when used with a figure (Examples: Page 1, Page 10, Page 20A). Exception: It's a Page One story.

Pardee Legal Research Center: Refer to the building as Pardee Legal Research Center on first reference. It may be referred to as the research center on second reference. The acronym LRC also is acceptable on second reference.

parent-teacher association: PTA is acceptable in all references. Capitalize when used as part of a proper name. (Examples: the Franklin School Parent Teacher Association. The Parent Teacher Association of the Franklin School.)

parish: Capitalize as part of the formal name for a church congregation or a governmental jurisdiction (Examples: St. John's Parish, Jefferson Parish). Lowercase when standing alone or in plural combinations (Examples: the parish, St. John's and St. Mary's parishes, Jefferson and Plaquemines parishes).

parishioner: A person who is a member of a parish.

part time, part-time: Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier. (Examples: She works part time. She has a part-time job.)

PDF: Capitalize. No periods. This acronym is acceptable in all uses for a file format called portable document format.

peace, Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice: Use the full name, Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice on first reference when referring to the institute, or the building in which the institute (one component of the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies) is located. Using an ampersand (&) is incorrect. On second reference either the institute (lowercase) or the acronym IPJ is acceptable. Do not use the terms the Institute, or the KIPJ in any marketing materials.

Note: No campus entity is authorized to use an ampersand. All University of San Diego colleges, schools, centers, institutes, programs or departments must spell out the word "and" in their proper name in print, on the web and in other references. See the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies entry for additional information.

peacebuilding: One word.

peacekeeping, peacekeeper: One word.

peacemaker, peacemaking: Single words.

peace offering: Two words.

peacetime: One word.

percent: Lowercase. Do not use the % symbol. (Right: The assignment was 45 percent of the grade. Wrong: The assignment was 45% of the grade.) It takes a singular verb when standing alone or when a singular word follows an of construction. (Examples: The teacher said 60 percent was a failing grade. He said 50 percent of the membership was there.) It takes a plural verb when a plural word follows an of construction. (Example: He said 50 percent of the members were there.)

PhD: When referencing people who hold doctorate degrees or honorary doctorate degrees, list their name and degree on first reference. The degree should be set off by commas if it comes in the middle of a sentence. (Example: Jane Smith, PhD, was named as president of the university.) The preferred form is to say a person holds a PhD in a particular area of specialty. In subsequent references, it is acceptable to list the Dr. abbreviation before the person's last name. See the doctor entry for additional information.

PhDs: Plural form.

planets: Capitalize the proper names of planets. Capitalize Earth when used as the proper name of our planet. Lowercase nouns and adjectives derived from the proper names of planets and other heavenly bodies (Example: martian). See the earth entry for additional information.

play or opera titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Italicize.

plazas and gardens: USD is justifiably renowned for the beauty of its campus. Notable plazas and gardens are as follows: Bishop Leo T. Maher Garden (located in the courtyard behind Maher Hall); Camino/Founders Patio (located between Camino and Founders Halls); Colachis Plaza (located in front of The Immaculata); Eagan Plaza (located in front of the Jenny Craig Pavilion); the Garden of the Moon (located to the left of the front of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice); the Garden of the Sea (located behind the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice); the Garden of the Sky (located in front of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice); the Plaza Mayor (located outside the entrance to Pavilion Dining in the Student Life Pavilion); the Plaza Menor (located in front of the Hahn University Center); the Plaza de San Diego (located in front of Maher Hall); Strata Plaza (located behind the Shiley Center for Science and Technology); and Tecolote Memorial Garden (located across Alcalá Park Way between the Hahn University Center and Maher Hall).

p.m., a.m.: Lowercase with periods. Avoid redundancies such as 10 a.m. in the morning.

poem titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Put quotation marks around the title.

policymakers, policymaking: One word.

pontiff, pope: Pontiff is not a formal title and is always lowercase. Capitalize pope when used as a formal title before a name. Lowercase in all other uses. (Examples: Pope Benedict XVI spoke to the crowd. At the close of his address, the pope gave his blessing.)

possessives: For singular nouns not ending in s, add 's (Examples: The church's needs, the girl's toys, the fox's den, the justice's verdict, Marx's theories, Xerox's profits). For plural nouns not ending in s add 's (Examples: women's rights, the alumni's contributions). For plural nouns ending in s add only an apostrophe (Examples: the churches' needs, the girls' toys, the horses' food, the states' rights). For nouns that are plural in form but singular in meaning, add only an apostrophe (Examples: mathematics' rules, measles' effects). For nouns that have the same form for singular and plural, treat them the same as plurals even if the meaning is singular (Examples: the two deer's tracks, the lone moose's antlers). For additional questions, consult Webster's New World College Dictionary.

premier, premiere: Premier is a government title. Premiere is a first performance.

president: Capitalize only as a formal title before one or more names (Examples: President Obama, Presidents Ford and Carter). Lowercase in all other uses. (Examples: The president said today. He is running for president. Lincoln was president during the Civil War.) The same rules apply for vice president. See the vice president entry for additional information. In most cases, the university's president should be referred to as James T. Harris III. If the title precedes his name, it should be capitalized (Examples: President James T. Harris III walks every morning. As president of the university, James T. Harris III says ... ). In signatures to official correspondence, he should be referred to as James T. Harris III, DEd.

priest: Priest is a vocational description, not a formal title. Do not capitalize. Priests may be referred to as Reverend or Father. Reverend is usually reserved for formal uses in letters and introductions and is abbreviated before a name. Father, the more common and informal term, is used in most instances at University of San Diego. See the entries for father and reverend for specific style guidelines for each.

principal, principle: Principal is a noun and adjective meaning someone or something first in rank, authority, importance or degree. Principle is a noun that means the fundamental truth, law, doctrine or motivating force.

Professor: Never abbreviate. Capitalize before a name. It is not necessary to continue using on subsequent references, unless it's part of a direct quotation. Capitalize and spell out the formal title, professor, only when it precedes a name.

program: This entry is similar to the department entry. The word program should only be capitalized if it is part of a proper name such as in the case of the Honors Program. It should be lowercase in all other instances, or when used in a general sense. (Example: John Smith is a student in the Master of Arts in Counseling program. Jane Jones is a student in the counseling program.) See the department entry for additional information.

program coordinator, program director: This style is similar to the guidelines discussed in the titles entry. The title program coordinator should be lowercase, except when used as part of a formal title directly before a person's name. (Examples: The event featured Systems Institute Program Coordinator John Smith. John Smith, program coordinator for Systems Institute, spoke at the event.) Likewise, program director should be lowercase, except when used as part of a formal title directly before a person's name. (Examples: The event featured Systems Institute Program Director John Smith. John Smith, program director of Systems Institute, spoke at the event.)

Q

Q-and-A format: Hyphenate when it's modifying something. Capitalize the Q and A.

quotes: Do not alter quotes. Casual minor slips of the tongue can be removed by using ellipses but even that should be done with extreme caution. If there is a question about a quote either don't use it or ask the speaker to clarify. In general, avoid fragmentary quotes. If a speaker's words are clear and concise, favor the full quote. If language is cumbersome, paraphrase the thought fairly. Keep quotes in context. Remember that you can misquote someone by printing a startling remark without its modifying passage or qualifiers.

R

ranges: (Right: $12 million to $14 million. Wrong: $12 to $14 million.)

ratios: Use figures and hyphens. (Examples: The ratio was 2-to-1. It was a 2-to-1 ratio.) The word to should be omitted when the numbers precede the word ratio (Example: a 2-1 ratio).

Realtor: Use Realtor only if there's a reason to indicate that the person is a member of the National Association of Realtors. Otherwise, the term real estate agent is preferred.)

residence hall: This term is preferred over dorm.

Reverend: Reverend is usually reserved for formal uses in letters and introductions and is abbreviated before a name. When this description is used before an individual's name, abbreviate it as Rev. and precede it with the word the, because, unlike the case with Mr. and Mrs., Rev. does not stand for a noun. The title is spelled out and lowercase if it follows a name or is independent of a name. (Examples: The officiate at the celebration was the Rev. John Jones. The reverend spoke before an audience of 2,000 people.)

room numbers: Use figures. Capitalize when used with a figure. Precede with a comma if the room number is listed within a building. (Example: Maher Hall, Room 204.)

rooms: Capitalize the names of specially designated rooms (Example: The Salomon Lecture Hall in Maher Hall).

rosary: Lowercase. The rosary is recited, not said and never read.

ROTC: Acceptable in all references for Reserve Officers' Training Corps. When the service is specified, use Army ROTC, Naval ROTC or Air Force ROTC. Do not use abbreviations such as AROTC, NROTC or AFROTC.

RSVP: No periods. The term abbreviates the French phrase, repondez si'l vous plaît, which means, "Please reply." It is redundant to say, "Please RSVP." The following uses are acceptable: RSVP by Jan. 12 to {name/telephone number/email address}. Please reply by Jan. 12 to {name/ telephone number/email address}.

S

Sabbath: Capitalize in religious references. Lowercase to mean a period of rest.

sacraments: Capitalize the proper names used for a sacramental rite that commemorates the life of Jesus Christ or signifies a belief in his presence (Examples: the Lord's Supper, Holy Communion, Holy Eucharist). Lowercase the names of other sacraments (Examples: baptism, confirmation, penance, the sacrament of reconciliation, matrimony, holy orders and the sacrament of anointing the sick).

Sacred Heart Hall: Capitalize. Do not refer to the location simply as Sacred Heart.

saint: Abbreviate the word saint as St. in proper names of saints and the places and institutions named for them. (Example: Followers of St. Therese, a Carmelite nun who died of tuberculosis at age 24, are devoted.)

SAT: Use only the acronym, without periods, when referring to the Scholastic Aptitude Test or the Scholastic Assessment Test.

Satan: Capitalize. But lowercase devil or satanic.

Saturday: Capitalize and spell out. Do not abbreviate. See the days of the week entry for additional information.

savior: Use this spelling for all senses, rather than the alternate form, saviour. Capitalize when referring to Jesus Christ.

scene, act numbers: Capitalize when used with a figure (Examples: Scene 2, Act 2. Scene 4). But lowercase in general use (Examples: the second scene, the third act).

school: Capitalize when part of a proper name. (Examples: The School of Law, the Hahn School of Nursing and Health Science.) Lowercase when used separate from the complete formal name. (Example: The student applied to the law school. The nursing school was recognized.)

School of Business: Capitalize when part of a proper name. Lowercase when used separate from or with less than the complete and formal name. (Examples: The School of Business is well-respected. The student applied to the business school. The student applied to the school of business.)

School of Law: Capitalize when part of a proper name. Lowercase when used separate from or with less than the complete and formal name. (Examples: The School of Law is ranked highly. The student applied to the law school.)

School of Leadership and Education Sciences, SOLES: Capitalize when part of a proper name. Notice the word and in the proper name is spelled out and is lowercase. Using an ampersand (&) is incorrect. Notice Sciences is plural. The acronym for the School of Leadership and Education Sciences (SOLES), should be avoided on first references, and its use should be limited because although it's shorter than spelling out the formal name of the school, it is not universally known.

School of Nursing: See Hahn School of Nursing and Health Science.

schools: Schools is lowercase when referring to more than one of the university's schools or when referencing anything other than the formal names of the schools. (Examples: Students applied to the schools of law and business administration. The students applied to the law school, the business school and the nursing school.)

science center, Donald P. Shiley Center for Science and Technology: Use the full name, Donald P. Shiley Center for Science and Technology, on first reference. This is one of the few cases where the full name of the donor for who the building is named is used. The building may be referred to as the Shiley Center for Science and Technology, or simply as the science center, on second reference. Do not refer to the building as the Shiley Science Center or the Shiley Center.

Scripture, Scriptures: Capitalize when referring to the religious writings in the Bible.

seasons: Capitalize spring, summer, fall, winter when they are listed with a date as part of the formal reference to a semester, a formal name or an edition to a publication. (Examples: The Spring 2015 edition of USD Magazine. The class will be offered during the Spring 2015 semester. He attended the Boston Winter Carnival. She competed in the Summer Olympics.) Lowercase the words and derivatives such as springtime in general uses. See the entry for semester for more information.

semester: The word semester is always lowercase. But capitalize spring, summer, fall, winter when they are listed with a date as part of the formal reference to a semester. (Examples: The class will be offered during the Spring 2007 semester.) Lowercase the words when not part of a formal name or in general uses. (Example: He will take that class in the spring. The spring semester starts in January.) See the seasons entry for additional information.

senior (Sr.): Abbreviate as Sr. only with full names of people. Do not precede with a comma (Example: John Smith Sr.). If necessary to distinguish between a father and son in second reference, use the elder Smith or the younger Smith.

Serra Hall: Capitalize. Do not refer to the building simply as Serra.

Service-learning: Hyphenate.

Shiley-Marcos School of Engineering: Spell out the name of the school in full on first reference. Notice that Shiley-Marcos is hyphenated when referring to the name of the school. On subsequent references, the school may be listed as the school of engineering, but should be lowercase. (Examples: The Shiley-Marcos School of Engineering is well-respected. The student applied to the school of engineering or the student applied to USD's engineering school.)

Shiley Theatre: Not Shiley Theater. See the entry for theater, theatre for additional information.

ships, boats: Capitalize the names of boats and ships. (Example: The USS Midway is a popular tourist attraction.) Do not use the pronoun her when referring to ships or boats. Use the pronoun it instead. See the USS entry for additional information.

Sister, nun: Always spell out and capitalize Sister before a name. (Examples: Sister Agnes Rita in all references if the nun uses only a religious name; Sister Clare Torpy on first reference if she uses a surname and Sister Torpy on subsequent references.)

Society of the Sacred Heart: Society of the Sacred Heart is the name of the religious order to which Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill, one of the university's founders, belonged. A person who is a member of the order is referred to as a Religious of the Sacred Heart. (Examples: The Society of the Sacred Heart is an international order. Mother Rosalie Clifton Hill is a Religious of the Sacred Heart.)

software titles: Capitalize but do not use quotation marks around titles such as Adobe Acrobat or Windows.

SOLES: The acronym for the School of Leadership and Education Sciences should be avoided on first reference, and its use should be limited because although it's shorter than spelling out the formal name of the school, it is not universally known. See the School of Leadership and Education Sciences entry for additional information.

song titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Put quotation marks around the title.

Southern California: Capitalize.

speech or lecture titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Put quotation marks around the title. See the bibliography entry for additional information.

Sports Center: Capitalize when referring to the facility on campus. Lowercase in general uses.

stadium: Capitalize only when part of a proper name. The University of San Diego's stadiums are Cunningham Stadium and Torero Stadium.

states: The names of certain states are abbreviated when used in conjunction with a city name (Examples: Ventura, Calif.; Portland, Ore.). When used in a sentence, offset the state abbreviation with commas (Example: The population of Mobile, Ala., grew by 10 percent last year.). Use postal abbreviations (listed below in parentheses) only for postal addresses.

Correct state abbreviations are:

  • Arizona: Ariz. (AZ)
  • Arkansas: Ark. (AR)
  • California: Calif. (CA)
  • Colorado: Colo. (CO)
  • Connecticut: Conn. (CT)
  • Delaware: Del. (DE)
  • Florida: Fla. (FL)
  • Georgia: Ga. (GA)
  • Illinois: Ill. (IL)
  • Indiana: Ind. (IN)
  • Kansas: Kan. (KS)
  • Kentucky: Ky. (KY)
  • Louisiana: La. (LA)
  • Maryland: Md. (MD)
  • Massachusetts: Mass. (MA)
  • Michigan: Mich. (MI)
  • Minnesota: Minn. (MN)
  • Mississippi: Miss. (MS)
  • Missouri: Mo. (MO)
  • Montana: Mt. (MT)
  • Nebraska: Neb. (NE)
  • Nevada: Nev. (NV)
  • New Hampshire: N.H. (NH)
  • New Jersey: N.J. (NJ)
  • New Mexico: N.M. (NM)
  • New York: N.Y. (NY)
  • North Carolina: N.C. (NC)
  • North Dakota: N.D. (ND)
  • Oklahoma: Okla. (OK)
  • Oregon: Ore. (OR)
  • Pennsylvania: Pa. (PA)
  • Rhode Island: R.I. (RI)
  • South Carolina: S.C. (SC)
  • South Dakota: S.D. (SD)
  • Tennessee: Tenn. (TN)
  • Vermont: Vt. (VT)
  • Virginia: Va. (VA)
  • Washington: Wash. (WA)
  • West Virginia: W.V. (WV)
  • Wisconsin: Wis. (WI)
  • Wyoming: Wyo. (WY)

Note: The names of the following states are never abbreviated: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah.

Note: Certain major cities do not require identification by state. They are: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington, D.C.

stationary, stationery: Stationary is to be still. Stationery is writing paper.

student athlete: As a noun ("Tim is a student athlete"), do not hyphenate. However, as a compound adjective ("Tim's student-athlete experience"), the term should be hyphenated.

Student Life Pavilion: Capitalize. Do not refer to the building as the student pavilion.

student veterans: These are students that have served in the armed forces. This does not include those still actively serving, in reserve or dependents (spouse/child).

subcommittee: One word. Capitalize only when used as part of a formal name.

sun: Lowercase.

Sunday: Capitalize and spell out. Do not abbreviate. See the days of the week entry for additional information.

superintendent: Do not abbreviate. Capitalize only when used as a formal title before a person's name. Lowercase in other uses. (Examples: Superintendent John Smith addressed the group. John Smith, who took over as the school district's superintendent four years ago, addressed the group.)

sweat pants, sweat shirt, sweat suit: All are two words.

syllabus, syllabuses: Syllabus is singular. Syllabuses is plural.

T

teen, teenager, teenage: Avoid teenaged.

telephone numbers: When listing telephone numbers, use parentheses to set off the area code. Do not use hyphens, slashes or periods (Right: (619) 260-4600. Wrong: 619-260-4600, 619/260-4600 or 619.260.4600). When listing telephone numbers with extensions, abbreviate the word extension as ext., preceded by a comma (Right: (619) 260-4600, ext. 1111; Wrong: (619) 260-4600 x1111). If the phone number and extension are part of a sentence that continues, a comma should precede and follow the extension. (Example: Call (619) 260-4600, ext. 1111, for show times and ticket prices.) Listing extensions alone should be done only with publications that are distributed internally. See the ext., extensions entry for additional information.

television program titles: Capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of more than four letters. Capitalize articles the, a, an, or words of fewer than four letters if it is the first or last word in a title. Italicize.

temperatures: Use figures for all except for zero. Use a word, not a minus (-) symbol to indicate temperatures below zero. (Examples: The day's low was minus 10. The day's low was 10 below zero. The temperature rose to zero by noon.) Temperatures get higher or lower. They do not get warmer or cooler. Other uses: temperatures fell 50 degrees. The temperature was in the 30s.

Ten Commandments: Capitalize. Do not abbreviate or use numerals.

theater, theatre: Use theatre when referring to Shiley Theatre or any theatre arts programs at the university. Use theater in other general references.

Thee, Thou, He, Him, His: Capitalize the personal pronouns that refer to the deity.

The Immaculata: This is the signature building on campus. It is one of the rare instances where the word The is capitalized in all references to the building or the church. (Example: Mass was held in The Immaculata.)

Thursday: Capitalize and spell out. Do not abbreviate. See the days of the week entry for additional information.

TIFF: Capitalize. No periods. Acronym for Tagged Image File Format, a file format used mainly for storing images, including photos.

times: Use numerals, without colons and zeros for even hours (Example: 10 a.m. or 2 p.m.). Use a colon and numerals to separate hours from minutes in partial hours. (Example: 10:15 a.m. or 2:30 p.m.) Spell out noon and midnight but do not capitalize. It is not necessary to say 12 noon or 12 midnight. (Example: The office is open from 10:30 a.m. to noon. The office is closed from 6 p.m. to midnight.) Avoid redundancies such as 10 a.m. in the morning or 10 p.m. at night. Also avoid redundancies of using a.m. or p.m. twice when listing ranges of times in the same timeframes. It is preferable to use the word to, rather than a hyphen, when listing a time range. (Examples: The class is held from either 10 to 11:30 a.m. or 5:30 to 7 p.m.) The construction 4 o'clock is acceptable, but time listings with a.m. and p.m. (lowercase with periods) is preferred.

time, date, location: This is the preferred order when writing a sentence that lists these elements. The date should be set off by commas (Example: The lecture will be held at 4 p.m., Sept. 28, in Shiley Theatre.)

titles: Capitalize and spell out titles when used directly before an individual's name (Examples: Dean Jane Smith, Vice President John Jones). Lowercase and spell out when they are separate from a person's name, are set off from a person's name using commas or are not used with a person's name. (Examples: Jane Smith was named dean of the school in 2001. John Jones, the vice president of the company, will retire in June. The vice president issued a statement.)

Torero, Toreros: Capitalize. The word Torero comes from the Spanish term toro, the bull, and from the word torear, to fight bulls. All of the contestants in the ring are called Toreros. A Torero signifies courage, honor and fidelity.

Trans-Border Institute: This style is unique to USD's program.

T-shirt: Not t-shirt.

Tuesday: Capitalize and spell out. Do not abbreviate. See the days of the week entry for additional information.

U

UC, university center, Hahn University Center: Use Hahn University Center on first reference. The university center (lowercase) or the acronym UC (no periods) may be used on second reference.

United Nations, U.N.: Spell out when using as a noun. U.N. can be used only as an adjective.

United States, U.S., U.S.A.: Use United States as a noun and U.S. or U.S.A. (no spaces) only as adjectives.

units: References to academic course units should be written in numerals, rather than spelled out. (Example: Jane Smith took a 3-unit course. The class is 3 units, John Smith registered for 15 units this semester.)

university: Capitalize only when used as part of the proper name, University of San Diego. Lowercase in all other references. (Example: There are more than 7,000 at the university.)

university address: The proper way to list the university's address is as follows:

University of San Diego
5998 Alcalá Park
San Diego, CA 92110-2492

university center, Hahn University Center: Use Hahn University Center on first reference. The university center (lowercase) or the acronym UC (no periods) may be used on second reference.

University Copy: Capitalize when referring to the facility on campus.

University Terrace Apartments: Capitalize. Do not use the acronym UTA.

URL listings, website addresses, domain names: Omit the http:// that generally precedes website addresses. However, if a site address does not begin with www., the http:// is necessary. If space is a consideration, it is permissible to omit the www. prefix, so long as you take care to check the URL to make sure it still works without that prefix. Remove the underline and blue font formatting that automatically appears in some word processing programs. Remove the slash that generally appears at the end of a website. (Right: www.sandiego. edu; Wrong: http://www.sandiego.edu/). Splitting the name of a long web address between two lines should be avoided by making slight adjustments in kerning, the space between letters. However, if adjusting kerning isn't possible or doesn't work and a long web address must be divided between lines, break the address before a slash or a dot and start the next line with the slash or the dot and the rest of the address so that there is no confusion about whether the text on the second line is part of the web address.

U.S., United States: Use United States as a noun and U.S. (no space) only as an adjective.

USD: The acronym USD isn't universally recognized and is often confused for other institutions in the San Diego area, whose names share the same letters. Therefore it should be used with great care. Always spell out the University of San Diego name in full on first reference in the body of your copy. It is preferred to then refer to "the university," although the acronym USD may be used on subsequent references

USS: When referring to the names of military ships, precede the name with USS. Don't use periods. The name of the ship should be capitalized. (Example: The USS Midway is a popular tourist attraction.) Do not use the pronoun her when referring to ships or boats. Use the pronoun it instead. See the boats, ships entry for additional information.

V

the Valley: This is the campus nickname for a group of residence halls, called the Mission Housing Complex, located literally in a valley. However, the proper name for the group of residence halls, Mission Crossroads, should be used instead in all marketing materials. See the buildings, structures and other campus sites entry for additional information. See the entries for the individual buildings that make up the Valley for additional information.

versus, vs. v.: Spell it out in ordinary speech and writing. Avoid the abbreviation vs. For court cases use v. (Example: Marbury v. Madison).

Veterans Center: No apostrophe. This is the physical space, open to all, where military-connected students can gather to socialize, study and build community.

vice president: Capitalize only as a formal title before one or more names (Examples: Vice President Jane Smith, Vice Presidents Jane Smith and John Jones). Lowercase in all other uses. (Examples: The vice president said today. He is running for vice president. Jane Smith was vice president during the merger.) The same rules apply for president. See the president entry for additional information.

vice versa: Phrase it this way.

VIP, VIPs: Acceptable in all references for very important person(s).

the Vistas: This is the campus nickname for a group of residence halls, known as the Alcalá Vista Apartments, located near the Sports Center. However, the proper name for the group of residence halls should be used instead in all marketing materials. See the buildings, structures and other campus sites entry for additional information. See the entries for the individual buildings that make up the Vistas for additional information.

W

war: Capitalize when used as part of the name of a specific conflict (Examples: the Civil War, the Cold War, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the War of 1812, World War II, the Gulf War, the Persian Gulf War).

web: Lowercase in all references.

webcast: One word. Lowercase.

webmaster: One word. Lowercase.

web page: Two words. Lowercase.

website: One word. Lowercase.

website addresses, URL listings, domain names: Omit the http:// that generally precedes website addresses. However, if a site address does not begin with www., the http:// is necessary. If space is a consideration, it is permissible to omit the www. prefix, so long as you take care to check the URL to make sure it still works without that prefix. Remove the underline and blue font formatting that automatically appears in some word processing programs. Remove the slash that generally appears at the end of a website. (Right: www.sandiego. edu; Wrong: http://www.sandiego.edu/). Splitting the name of a long web address between two lines should be avoided by making slight adjustments in kerning, the space between letters. However, if adjusting kerning isn't possible or doesn't work and a long web address must be divided between lines, break the address before a slash or a dot and start the next line with the slash or the dot and the rest of the address so that there is no confusion about whether the text on the second line is part of the web address.

website navigation, go to: When referring readers to a website, the phrase go to is preferred over visit or log on to. Give readers additional navigation tips by saying click on. (Example: For more information about the program, go to www.sandiego.edu/alumni and click on homecoming.)

Wednesday: Capitalize and spell out. Do not abbreviate. See the days of the week entry for additional information.

weekend: One word. No hyphen.

west entrance: Lowercase.

west kiosk: Lowercase.

West Parking Structure: Capitalize.

white paper: Two words. Lowercase when used to refer to a special report.

Women PeaceMakers Program: This style is unique to the Joan B. Kroc Institute for Peace and Justice's program.

worldwide: One word. But World Wide Web.

World Wide Web: Capitalize. Spell out on first reference. However, this is an archaic term and should be used only when it is most appropriate in context. It is acceptable to use web in all instances.

X

X-ray: Uppercase X. Lowercase ray.

Y

year-end: Hyphenate as an adjective.

yearlong: One word.

years: Use figures, without commas. (Example: 1975) Use an s without an apostrophe to indicate spans of decades or centuries. (Examples: the 1800s, the ‘90s) Years are the lone exception to the rule in numerals that a figure should not start a sentence. (Example: 1976 was a good year.) When referring to an academic year, list it without abbreviation. (Example: The scores went up during the 2016-2017 school year.)

Z

ZIP code: Capitalize ZIP because it is an acronym for Zoning Improvement Plan. Do not put a comma between the state and the ZIP code (Example: New York, N.Y. 10020).